Step 4: Life Began in the Icy Orbit of Pluto

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“You could say that the universe is in the business of making life – or that God is an organic chemist.”
~ Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, “Seeds of Life”, Omni Magazine Interview, 1983

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

On July 21, 1986, more than 260 scientists from over 20 nations gathered in California to discuss the origin of life on Earth. Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, director of the chemical evolution laboratory of the University of Maryland, expressed the opinion of everyone present when he said, “… The processes which led to life on Earth must have started elsewhere in the universe…”

It is common knowledge that the conditions prevailing in the Earth’s present position (approximately 149 ½ million km. from the sun) are unsuitable for the formation of life. Any search for the origins of humanity has to look for a place with much colder conditions, and with an atmosphere of hydrogen and hydrogen compounds. The most plausible explanation is that terrestrial life is a phenomenon which originated in an outlying orbit of the Solar System, where microorganisms were gathered by the convolutions of the Earth and packed into hard ice – conditions perfect for the preservation of organic material.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which include a number of explanatory videos.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which includes a number of explanatory videos.

dropstone NamibiaThe scientific theory, “Snowball Earth” says the Earth was once covered in ice.  Geologists Paul Hoffman and Dan Schrag found ‘dropstones’ in Namibia, Africa. Dropstones are rocks and boulders believed to have been dropped into sediment from icebergs. The fact that so many are found in the hot dry deserts of Namibia led them to propose an ice-age existed which extended as far south as the equator. There is a dedicated website by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Geology & Paleontology Division) which explores the theory: Snowballearth.org

Scientists have come to believe the first life forms evolved in ‘Snowball Earth’. Below are extracts from a very informative and fascinating article in Discover Magazine, February 2008, entitled: Did Life Evolve in Ice?  The article brings together the work of chemists, physicists and astro-biologists who all arrived independently at the notion that the “funky properties of frozen water may have made life possible.

Discover Magazine February 2008

Discover Magazine February 2008

“For decades, those studying the origin of life have imagined that it emerged in balmy conditions from primordial soups, tropical ponds, even boiling volcanic vents. Miller [Stanley L. Miller, renowned origin of life chemist] and and a few other scientists began to suspect that life began not in warmth but in ice—at temperatures that few living things can now survive. The very laws of chemistry may have favored ice, says Bada [Jeffery Bada, chemist and astrobiologist], now at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. “We’ve been arguing for a long time,” he says, “that cold conditions make much more sense, chemically, than warm conditions.”

*****

… strange things happen when you freeze chemicals in ice. Some reactions slow down, but others actually speed up—especially reactions that involve joining small molecules into larger ones. This seeming paradox is caused by a process called eutectic freezing. As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: Only molecules of water join the growing crystal, while impurities like salt or cyanide are excluded. These impurities become crowded in microscopic pockets of liquid within the ice, and this crowding causes the molecules to collide more often. Chemically speaking, it transforms a tepid seventh-grade school dance into a raging molecular mosh pit.

“Usually as you cool things, the reaction rates go down,” concluded Leslie Orgel, who studied the origins of life at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, from the 1960s until his death last October. “But with eutectic freezing, the concentrations go up so fast that they more than make up” for the difference.

“The strong point of freezing,” according to Orgel, “is that you concentrate things very efficiently without evaporation.” Freezing also helps preserve fragile molecules like nucleobases, extending their lifetime from days to centuries and giving them time to accumulate and perhaps organize into something more interesting—like life.

Orgel and his coworkers proposed these ideas in 1966, when he showed that frozen cyanide efficiently assembles into larger molecules. Alan Schwartz, a biochemist at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands, took the idea further when he showed in 1982 that frozen cyanide, in the presence of ammonia, can form a nucleobase called adenine.

*****

Hauke Trinks and wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland

Hauke Trinks and local wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland, far north of the Arctic Circle, where he went to study the evolution of life in sea ice – similar conditions to prehistoric ‘Snowball Earth’. Credit: Marie Tieche

[Pre-historic] Earth may have cooled to an average surface temperature of –40°F and a crust of ice as much as 1,000 feet thick may have covered the oceans. Many scientists have puzzled over how life could have arisen on a planet that was essentially a giant snowball. The answer, Trinks [Hauke Trinks, physicist at Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in Germany] suspected, involved sea ice.

Trinks had become interested in sea ice 10 years before, while studying its tendency to accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and concentrate them in liquid pockets within the ice. He set out to explore whether a layer of ice covering early Earth’s oceans might have gathered and assembled organic molecules.”…

By the time Trinks returned to Hamburg in 2003, he had formulated a theory that ice was doing much more than just concentrating chemicals. The ice surface is a checkerboard of positive and negative charges; he imagined those charges grabbing individual nucleobases and stacking them like Pringles in a can, helping them coalesce into a chain of RNA. “The surface layer between ice and liquid is very complicated,” he says. “There is strong bonding between the surface of the ice and the liquid. Those bondings are important for producing long organic chains like RNA.”

At a lecture in Hamburg in 2003, Trinks met up with chemist Christof Biebricher, who was studying how the first RNA chains could have formed in the absence of the enzymes that guide their formation in living cells. Trinks approached Biebricher with his sea ice theory, but to Biebricher, the experiments to test it sounded messy—more like a margarita recipe than a serious scientific investigation. “Chemists,” says Biebricher, “do not like heterogeneous substances like ice.” But Trinks convinced him to try it in his laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

dna-and-rnaBiebricher sealed small amounts of RNA nucleobases—adenine, cytosine, guanine—with artificial seawater into thumb-size plastic tubes and froze them. After a year, he thawed the tubes and analyzed them for chains of RNA.

For decades researchers had tried to coax RNA chains to form under all sorts of conditions without using enzymes; the longest chain formed, which Orgel accomplished in 1982, consisted of about 40 nucleobases. So when Biebricher analyzed his own samples, he was amazed to see RNA molecules up to 400 bases long. In newer, unpublished experiments he says he has observed RNA molecules 700 bases long.

*****

That is a good start, but it leaves unanswered the question: How do you get from tiny snippets of RNA to longer, well-crafted chains that could have acted as the first enzymes, doing fancy things like copying themselves. The shortest RNA enzyme chains known today are about 50 bases long; most have more than 100. To work effectively, moreover, an RNA enzyme must fold correctly, which requires exactly the right sequence of bases.

A young scientist named Alexander Vlassov stumbled upon a possible answer. He was working at SomaGenics, a biotech company in Santa Cruz, California, to develop RNA enzymes that latch on to the hepatitis C virus. His RNA enzymes were behaving strangely: They normally consisted of a single segment of RNA, but every time he cooled them below freezing to purify them, the chain of RNA spontaneously joined its ends into a circle, like a snake biting its tail. As Vlassov worked to fix the technical glitch, he noticed that another RNA enzyme, called hairpin, also acted strangely. At room temperature, hairpin acts like scissors, snipping other RNA molecules into pieces. But when Vlassov froze it, it ran in reverse: It glued other RNA chains together end to end.

Vlassov and his coworkers, Sergei Kazakov and Brian Johnston, realized that the ice was driving both enzymes to work in reverse. Normally when an enzyme cuts an RNA chain in two, a water molecule is consumed in the process, and when two RNA chains are joined, a water molecule is expelled. By removing most of the liquid water, the ice creates conditions that allow the RNA enzyme to work in just one direction, joining RNA chains. The SomaGenics scientists wondered whether an icy spot on early Earth could have driven a primitive enzyme to do the same. 

*****

Miller died on May 20, 2007, but the provocative theory he helped nurture lives on. In the latest twist, Miller’s ideas are influencing not just theories about life’s origin on Earth but also investigations about the potential for life elsewhere in the solar system. 

LIFE UNDER ANTARCTIC’S ICE

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

The July 2013 issue of Discover Magazine has the article “Life Under Antarctic’s Ice”, which explains how a group of scientists discovered a subglacial lake half a mile under Antarctica, containing something no one thought was possible – life!

“On Jan. 28, Trista Vick-Majors, one of Priscu’s Ph.D. students, took a long-awaited step: She added DNA-sensitive dye to a sample of lake water — the first attempt to detect life in Lake Whillans. As she viewed it through a microscope, she saw specks of green shining against a background of black — cells glowing in response to the dye — as many as 1.6 million cells in each cubic inch of water. Those cells were the first ever found unambiguously in a subglacial lake.”

They thought life was impossible in the subglacial lake, not just because of the cold, but the lack of sunlight.

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Credit: Discover magazine

“Only the upper 10 to 30 feet of water in these lakes was frozen as ice, so sunlight filtered through, allowing life to power itself through photosynthesis. But a lake as deeply buried as Vostok [another subglacial lake] would be entirely dark, so any life there would have to use some other energy source. At that time, the question of what life might inhabit Lake Vostok was becoming increasingly relevant to people who were looking for life elsewhere in the solar system.”

pluto_core

Pluto with its Core

This is a common notion – that life requires the Sun. I recently took a university short course on eco-systems and I was surprised at how the literature gave solar energy as the only source for life. Yet this completely overlooks life found in the deep oceans near volcanic vents and the numerous translucent and blind life forms found in deep caves – who have never seen sunlight. Heat and energy coming from the Earth’s Core have been shown to provide the necessary energy for life (see video below). In the orbit of Pluto, where sunlight is limited, the planet’s Core provides the heat and energy for life to develop.

In this post I have provided evidence that:
  • Earth was once covered in ice,
  • life is believed to have evolved in ice, and
  • present day icy conditions on Earth show an abundance of simple life forms, in particular single-cell organisms – even when there is no sunlight.

But it is not enough to say that life began on an icy cold Earth – but rather the Earth was icy cold because it was once in the orbit of Pluto. Perhaps it is best to look at the Pluto itself to see if it can offer us any information:

The video above from Space Telescope Science Institute was published in 2010. I include it here because astronomers have unexpectedly discovered that Pluto is not “ just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world”. Quoting from the video:

“Pluto got redder, markedly redder, just over that very short time span [1994-2002].” ~ Marc Buie, astronomer Southwest Research Institute. “I was expecting that if we would see any change at all it would be very, very subtle and instead it seems like Pluto is changing perhaps a little faster than I would have expected.” ~ Will Grundy, astronomer, Lowell Observatory. What Pluto’s changing landscape means is anybody’s guess.

“We can no longer interpret what we are seeing as the result of a static surface that’s just changing in the direction we’re looking at it. We really have to have change taking place on the surface to explain the observations.” ~Buie “Observations that hint the Pluto is not just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world on the solar system’s final frontier.”

New Horizons - an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

New Horizons – an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

The more we learn about Pluto the more we discard old ideas – the difficulty is figuring out new explanations to replace our old ones. In 2015 an unmanned space probe, New Horizons, will pass by and photograph Pluto and hopefully provide new information. Quoting from a BBC article entitled: “Pluto’s dynamic surface revealed by Hubble images“:

“Alan Stern, who is principal investigator on the mission, said that with every great planetary reconnaissance mission “we have always learnt that when we get there, we are blown away by how primitive our ideas were from blurry images taken from Earth.

He told BBC News: “When we get there, the odds are very high that we will have so much more information and rich detail that all our views circa 1990 and 2000 and 2010 will appear antiquated. That’s why I don’t like to make predictions.”

He added: “No one predicted river valleys on Mars, or volcanoes on the Galilean satellites, or that Mercury was mostly a core and little else. It’s entirely likely that Pluto will be something so surprising that everything we’ve done so far looks quaint in comparison.”

I hope the evidence I presented here gives you cause to think that there is more to our Solar System than we currently believe. Quoting the last paragraph from “Did Life Evolve In Ice?“:

“If life arose in ice on Earth, then why not on Mars, Europa, or Enceladus? “You’ve got to keep an open mind in this business,” Bada says. “If I were going to make a bet about what we’d find if we discover life elsewhere in the universe, I would suspect it would be more cold-adapted than hot-adapted.” “

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released - February 2010. Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released – February 2010.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

Step 3: The Mystery of the Appearing Turtle

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The turtle is a mystery of evolution. Its body shape first appears in the fossil record fully formed. But how? If life evolves in small incremental steps where are all the fossils showing the development of the turtle? Quoting from the textbook ‘Explore Evolution:

“The very first time turtles appear, their body plan is already fully developed, and they appear in the fossil record without intermediates. Furthermore, turtle and tortoise shells contain more than 50 bony “scutes” that appear in no other vertebrate order, nor anywhere else in the fossil record. What’s more, the turtle scapula is positioned underneath its ribs and scutes, unlike any living or fossilised vertebrate. Scott Gilbert, an evolutionary biologist who works on this puzzle, says that “the turtle shell represents a classic evolutionary problem: the appearance of a major structural adaptation”. According to Gilbert, this problem is made even more difficult by “the ‘instantaneous’ appearance of this evolutionary novelty.” Because “the distinctive morphology [form and structure] of the turtle appears to have arisen suddenly.” Gilbert and his colleagues argue that evolution needs “to explain the rapid origin of the turtle carapace [shell].” They are studying turtle embryology to investigate how this might have happened.

A fossil of one of the world's oldest-known turtle shells with a limb bone discovered in clay deposit northwest of Krakow. Credit: PhysOrg Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2012-10-world-oldest-turtle-shells.html#jCp

A fossil of one of the world’s oldest-known turtle shells with a limb bone discovered in clay deposit northwest of Krakow. Credit: PhysOrg

Excerpt from "At last, the hard facts on how the turtle got its shell" The Times 31 May 2013

Excerpt from “At last, the hard facts on how the turtle got its shell” The Times 31 May 2013

The image on the left is from a Times 2013 newspaper article called “At last, the hard facts on how the turtle got its shell“. I read with great interest thinking that the title was true. But I was disappointed. Nowhere in the article does it say how the turtle got its shell. The article starts its explanation with a fully formed shell – without saying how it formed. Instead the article focuses on the next steps in the turtle’s evolutionary journey.  However the conclusion of the article did not disappoint:

“The team also revealed that the sequence of evolutionary events resembles the steps seen as turtle embryos develop their shellsIt might not be the solution that Kipling would have dreamt up, but as Dr. Lyson [paleontologist Yale University and the Smithsonian] said: “The development data and the fossil record now align and are pointing towards the same answer.” ‘

The turtle’s evolutionary cycle resembles its embryonic growth cycle! This is an important realisation, yet I don’t think the author of the Times article or the very scientists studying the fossils grasp the implications. Even those who wrote the ‘Explore Evolution’ textbook (which is basically a criticism of Darwin’s theory) show a lack of understanding of what they are saying.

Vertebrae in one of the world's oldest-known turtle fossils.

Vertebrae in one of the world’s oldest-known turtle fossils

The turtle’s evolution looks like an growth cycle because evolution is a growth cycle!

If we want to know how Nature evolves life then we should look at how Nature develops life. This would lead us to look for cyclical transformative stages: tadpole to frog, sapling to tree, foetus to baby – an organism changes its body shape during its growth cycle (and often changes the environment it inhabits – tadpole in water to frog on land, chick in egg to hen on land, foetus inside a body to human on land).

Embryonic development of different species.

Embryonic development of different species

What if – if only for philosophical contemplation on this windy spring morning – what if Nature did evolve life the way Nature develops life? What would we expect to find? Life begins with the seed. Well, life on Earth began with single-cell organisms… seeds? One seed is often indistinguishable from anther, but once fertilized, life begins to take its distinctive shape (as shown in the image on the left).

The same procedure appears in our fossil record: first single-cell organisms, then the Cambrian Explosion in which we find that species began to take their distinctive body shapes. In fact, the vast majority of body types that exist on Earth today began during the Cambrian Explosion.

Sample of Cambrian fossils.

Sample of Cambrian fossils body types

I know that analogy is not proof. I am not offering this comparison as proof. But rather as a thought experiment. As Dr Lyson (from the Times article) said: The development data and the fossil record now align and are pointing towards the same answer.

It may not be what paleontologists “would have dreamt up” but the answer is that evolution is a system of growth, a process of development – as delineated and as reliable as any growth cycle in Nature.

We can’t see it because we’re in it – we can’t see the forest for the trees.

Fossil of the Icaronycteris, earliest known bat.

Fossil of the Icaronycteris, earliest known bat.

As a final note: the turtle is not the only animal to make its first appearance fully formed in the fossil record. The first bat looks very much like the modern day bat with fully functional wings (see above).

This is also true of many flowering plants which appeared during the “angiosperm big bloom”. As a National Geographic article “”The Big Bloom—How Flowering Plants Changed the World” asks: “Just when and how did the first flowering plants emerge? Charles Darwin pondered that question, and paleobotanists are still searching for an answer.”

A South African monkey beetle burrows deep into the center of a Gazania flower to feed on flower parts. The beetle then emerges with a luxuriant coat of pollen, which it carries to other flowers. Credit: National Geographic "The Big Bloom—How Flowering Plants Changed the World"

A South African monkey beetle burrows deep into the center of a Gazania flower to feed on flower parts. The beetle then emerges with a luxuriant coat of pollen, which it carries to other flowers. Credit: National Geographic “The Big Bloom—How Flowering Plants Changed the World

System Thinking to Evolution

Mike's book pg 94-95

We must follow the Laws of Nature.
There is no other route to Heaven.

First apologies that it is taking me longer to complete these posts than I expected – my summer is turning out to be quite busy and I am trying to do Mike’s book before the blog. I find it works better that way. I spend a lot of time writing the same ole same ole same ole same ole, but then I sit down to enter it into Mike’s book and my words change completely (that’s why there are so many crossings out and little arrows for inserts). The pictures and articles certainly help to edit my words, but mostly I find I scrap all my waffle and strive to get to the heart of the matter – the kernel of truth – that can give him understanding, comfort and courage if I am not there with him at the End/Purification Time. That sounds dire, but it’s not, it’s insurance. Right now he’s outside on this beautiful sunny morning watering the garden, tending our vegetables, oblivious that anything may change. On mornings like this I too think it will last forever. But I know better. I’ve told him this story, but I don’t know how much he remembers, or cares to remember. When life is good we become complacent, thinking it will never change. But change is integral to life, essential to development. Life is transformative, biologically, psychologically – and at an evolutionary level. That is what this story is all about – the developmental cycle of all humanity. And we are not done, not yet fully cooked, we have one last step to take, one last change to make and we are blessed. All we need to do is sit tight, have faith and allow our loving mother Earth to take us to our final destination.

Quoting Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

One of the greatest truths, passed to us by indigenous peoples, is the knowledge that our Earth is a great living being. Our modern world tends to see the Earth as dead, inert matter; while native peoples perceive a life and consciousness in the Earth, and beyond, that most of the world has forgotten.

The universe is alive. It is a living universe whose life and awareness ensouls every star and world. Within our universe, life is nested together from largest to smallest, life within life— the universe is alive, so our Galaxies are alive, so our solar systems are alive, and so our Earth is also a living, conscious entity from whom we receive our own life. Life cannot be supported by something that is dead; if our Earth was dead, we would not have life.

Science currently explains the formation of our solar system – the planets, moons and life on Earth – as the result of random cosmic events: planetary collisions, meteor strikes, mass extinction events and mutations in DNA – all arbitrary, unrelated and violent. Always violent.

Our Wild Wild Solar System, National Geographic July 2013

Our Wild Wild Solar System, National Geographic July 2013

The July 2013 issue of the National Geographic (see left) exemplifies this assumption in its article It All Began in Chaos. And yet among it claims of “extreme violence, heavy bombardment, epic mayhem and gravitational instability” is a very interesting discovery – planetary migration!

“Who would have thought the giant planets might move, that the entire layout of the solar system could change?” says Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. But it took new telescope surveys to reveal them.

It was once believed that the solar system formed as it is now and then remained constant:

In practice no one saw evidence that planetary orbits had ever changed. So the clockwork solar system stuck with us—enduringly stable.” But … ” “Once the Plutinos were discovered, it was a slam dunk,” she [Renu Malhotra, chair of the theoretical astrophysics program at the University of Arizona] says. “Planet migration practically became a textbook idea.

The article doesn’t say a system is at work. But that’s not surprising. Our scientific history shows that this is common. We see formlessness in Nature, until we recognise form. We see chaos, until we recognise order – this seems to be our default mode. That is until our technology improves. As the National Geographic article says, planetary migration was only discovered because: “It took new telescope surveys to reveal them.”

There is a wonderful article on NASA website space.com. about Nicolaus Copernicus that illustrates this point. Here’s an extract:

Nicolaus Copernikus

Nicolaus Copernikus

“In Copernicus’ lifetime, most believed that Earth held its place at the center of the universe. The sun, the stars, and all of the planets revolved around it. One of the glaring mathematical problems with this model was that the planets, on occasion, would travel backward across the sky over several nights of observation. Astronomers called this retrograde motion. To account for it, the current model, based on the Greek astronomer and mathematician Ptolemy’s view, incorporated a number of circles within circles — epicycles — inside of a planet’s path. Some planets required as many as seven circles, creating a cumbersome model many felt was too complicated to have naturally occurred. 

The Copernican Planisphere – showing the planets orbiting the Sun for the first time. Illustrated in 1661 by Andreas Cellarius.

The Copernican Planisphere – showing the planets orbiting the Sun for the first time.
Illustrated in 1661 by Andreas Cellarius.

In 1514, Copernicus distributed a handwritten book to his friends that set out his view of the universe. In it, he proposed that the center of the universe was not Earth, but that the sun lay near it. He also suggested that Earth’s rotation accounted for the rise and setting of the sun, the movement of the stars, and that the cycle of seasons was caused by Earth’s revolutions around it.  Finally, he (correctly) proposed that Earth’s motion through space caused the retrograde motion of the planets across the night sky (planets sometimes move in the same directions as stars, slowly across the sky from night to night, but sometimes they move in the opposite, or retrograde, direction).

It wasn’t until he lay on his deathbed at the age of 70 that Copernicus published his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (“On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”). In it, Copernicus established that the planets orbited the sun rather than the Earth. He lay out his model of the solar system and the path of the planets.” ~ NASA

Even though Copernicus’ model made greater sense,  it took more than hundred years before it was accepted scientifically. And that only happened because one of the best and most respected minds of the day – Galileo Galilei built a telescope strong enough to provide empirical evidence in support of Copernicus. Even then the notion was only accepted after Galileo’s death.

Nature is systems

Our Earth as alive and we are Her children. Our evolution (and the evolution of all life) from our raw material to our final forms, follows a specific cycle of growth. Evolution isn’t chaotic or random, because nature doesn’t develop life that way. All life develops in systems.

Our Evolutionary Cycle

Perhaps the greatest difference between native and other
religions is this: we believe in God and evolution. We
believe God’s greatest work is through evolution. God
is the divine artist; evolution is the divine art. Evolution
is God’s Kiln, and man is still in the making.
(Native American Priest)

Systems Thinking (extract from Wikipedia)

Systems Thinking (extract from Wikipedia)

The explanations given in this blog are in line with “systems thinking”. Quoting from Wikipedia’s entry on systems thinking:

“Systems thinking is the process of understanding how things regarded as systems, influence one another within a whole… Systems thinking is not one thing but a set of habits or practices within a framework that is based on the belief that the component parts of a system can best be understood in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems, rather than in isolation.”

Throughout the blog I explain how the system works and provide supporting evidence. But there is a very easy way to determine the truth of the explanation – if the predictions come true. What is being proposed is a living system and within all living systems there are periods of transformation. So if the predicted changes arise – this surely gives support to the explanation.

And that is exactly what is happening. Quoting from the book:

Our Earth Mother is now in labor. The increasingly severe weather and geological disturbances are more than what most scientists believe; they are birth pangs originating from deep within the heart of the Earth. The Earth is laboring to birth what some native peoples have referred to as Her Egg (Her Core), which will emerge from the Earth’s birth canal in an Antarctic sea.

I’ve written about the warming of the deep waters of the Weddell Sea.

And I’ve written about the increase in earthquakes and other geological disturbances.  The severity and occurrence of earthquakes are increasing, but so often I read articles that dismiss their significance, saying things like:

  • “The earthquakes have always been this strong, we just didn’t have the technology to record them.”
  • “There are more people in the world now, so the disasters seem greater, because more people are affected.”
  • “With social networking sites like Twitter we hear about disasters we never heard about before.”
Mikes bk pg 75

“I think people have become very jaded and desensitized to news about earthquakes, to the point that anything under 8 is regarded as inconsequential.” (post in ATS Forum)

We must be careful and not fall into a trap of ‘disregarding what we don’t want to hear’.

Between 1939 – 1976 (38 years) there are 71 earthquakes of on/over magnitude 7.
Between 1977 – 2011 (35 years) there are 164 earthquakes of on/over magnitude 7.

If you put a frog in boiling water it will jump out.
If you put a frog in cold water and turn up the heat, it will not jump out, even when the water boils.

Are we like the frog in denial of hot water?!!

It is very interesting to note that the changes we are experiencing on Earth – climactic instability and geological upheavals – are also happening on the other planets in our Solar System. This agrees with the explanation laid out in the book, which says that all of the planets eject their Cores and move an orbit closer to the Sun simultaneously. This is how evolution works – every planet is a Mother evolving Her children step by step from the outer orbit of the Solar System towards the Sun.

God’s Evolutionary Process: The Sacred Path of Migration – The first line shows the Solar System as we know it now, with all the planets orbiting in set paths around the Sun. The second line shows the coming Purification Time (or ‘punctuation’ in equilibrium) when the planets eject their cores (to become moons) and then the planets (which are now lighter in mass) are gravitationally pulled one orbit closer to the Sun. During each Purification, the planet and moon in the first 2 orbits enter the Sun to create energy. The third line shows the planets returning to a state of ‘equilibrium’ where life once again returns to the planet – but as the planet is one orbit closer to the Sun, it is exposed to more heat and energy. This enables the jumps in biological improvement we see in our fossil record.

God’s Evolutionary Process: The Sacred Path of Planetary Migration – The first line shows the Solar System as we know it now, with all the planets orbiting in set paths around the Sun. The second line shows the coming Purification Time (or ‘punctuation’ in equilibrium) when the planets eject their cores (to become moons) and then the planets (which are now lighter in mass) are gravitationally pulled one orbit closer to the Sun. During each Purification, the planet and moon in the first 2 orbits enter the Sun to create energy. The third line shows the planets returning to a state of ‘equilibrium’ where life once again returns to the planet – but as the planet is one orbit closer to the Sun, it is exposed to more heat and energy. This enables the jumps in biological improvement we see in our fossil record.

jupiterIf you want to read more about the changes on other planets, then please have a look through the articles linked below:

You may not have heard about the dramatic changes throughout our Solar System because it’s a controversial idea.

Quoting from Sun Blamed for Warming of Earth and Other Worlds (LiveScience 2007):

“Earth is heating up lately, but so are Mars, Pluto and other worlds in our solar system, leading some scientists to speculate that a change in the sun’s activity is the common thread linking all these baking events. Others argue that such claims are misleading and create the false impression that rapid global warming, as Earth is experiencing, is a natural phenomenon.”

The last sentence makes an important point – changes on the other planets in our Solar System goes against the man-made climate change model for Earth. And there are many people who do not want to hear that. Perhaps they think it is a way of dismissing the enormity of the changes here on Earth. But questioning ‘man’s’ involvement, does not mean denying that the world is changing – it means that changes are beyond man’s influence.

Though the title of the article above  says ‘Sun blamed for warming of Earth‘, the content of the article dismisses the sun’s activity as being the cause:

“The radiation output of the Sun does fluctuate over the course of its 11-year solar cycle. But the change is only about one-tenth of 1 percent—not substantial enough to affect Earth’s climate in dramatic ways, and certainly not enough to be the sole culprit of our planet’s current warming trend, scientists say.

“The small measured changes in solar output and variations from one decade to the next are only on the order of a fraction of a percent, and if you do the calculations not even large enough to really provide a detectable signal in the surface temperature record,” said Penn State meteorologist Michael Mann.”

The Sun is therefore dismissed as the cause of global warming on Earth and the other planets in our Solar System. So why are most of the planets experiencing the same changes?

“Global warming on Neptune’s moon Triton as well as Jupiter and Pluto, and now Mars has some [scientists] scratching their heads over what could possibly be in common with the warming of all these planets … Could there be something in common with all the planets in our solar system that might cause them all to warm at the same time?”

Benny Peiser [social anthropologist at Liverpool John Moores University, who monitors studies and news reports of asteroids, global warming and other potentially apocalyptic topics] included quotes from recent news articles that take up other aspects of the idea.

“I think it is an intriguing coincidence that warming trends have been observed on a number of very diverse planetary bodies in our solar system,” Peiser said in an email interview. “Perhaps this is just a fluke.”

It is not a fluke. We are part of a larger system – a living system. And like in all living systems – things change.

Hopi Elder Statement

Hopi Elders Statement

But it is not a time to be afraid. No more than a caterpillar should be afraid of becoming a butterfly. There is a beautiful quote from the Hopi Elders Statement which reads:

There is a river flowing now very fast
It is so great and swift that there are those who will be afraid
They will try to hold onto the shore
They will feel they are being torn apart
And they will suffer greatly.
Know that the river has its destination.
The elders say we must let go of the shore,
Push off into the river,
Keep our eyes open,
And our heads above water.
Look around, see who is in there with you and celebrate.

I say that scientists assume that the cosmos is left-over debris from the Big Bang, but that’s not entirely true. Scientists are uncovering complex forms in the universe and some are beginning to question if it makes sense – if there is structure. The video below from astrophysicist and Nobel prize winner George Smoot shows stunning images from deep-space surveys, and “prods us to ponder how the cosmos — with its giant webs of dark matter and mysterious gaping voids — got built this way”.

Quoting from the book:

We cannot change the natural order of creation according to how we choose to believe. There is only one road that takes us to our promised place, and that road has always been with our Mother Earth, and the calendar Time God has provided us with Her. Nature operates as it has been made, its purposeful cycles all arriving in their appointed times. Whether we know it, or not, we are all being carried within its purposeful scheme.

Mike's bk pg 132-133

Steps towards a new beginning