Step 2: Friction at the Core

the core insert mks bk

The Core

You, me, every butterfly and bee.
One mechanism – Rotation
In the opposite direction.
Like a pumping heart,
Brings a body to life.

4 Steps to Evolution explains a 4 step process to the formation of our Solar System and all life in it:

But life is more than its material, it is the animation of that material – the dynamism, the force of life. Like plugging in a computer – without energy, a computer is simply a box of wires, bolts and bits of plastic. Yet with energy, it ‘comes alive’ with an ability to communicate, create, deduce and entertain. But the potential of the biggest, fastest, most powerful computer pales in comparison to the life in one human being. So what was (is) the force that brought (and continues to bring) the material of Earth to ‘life’?

It is the Core – the iron ball at the heart of our planet.

This is Step 2:

Earth and the Core

Earth and the Core

differentiationSo how does a planet’s core form? It forms through a process called ‘differentiation’.  Imagine you have a bucket of mixed  materials – rocks, pebbles and sand, and you shake the bucket. As you shake the bucket the heavier materials fall to the bottom and the lighter materials rise – this is differentiation. It happens on a planetary scale when the planet spins about its axis and rotates around the sun – all this movement causes the heavy metals in the Earth to fall towards the centre (the Core), where great pressure within the body of the Earth forms it into a solid metal ball – primarily iron.

Presently, scientists view the Core as a dead weight suspended in an ocean of magma. The heat and energy at the Core is seen as an artefact – radio-active decay from the Earth’s formation. This could not be more different than the Hopi explanation, quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

The Hopi refer to our living Earth Mother in their highest spirit law, Tutskwa I’qatsi, Land and Life are one: the Earth’s body is our Land (feminine-Mother), and Her inner Core-Heart is Her Life (masculine-Father).

The Core is the life force of the Earth – that which makes our hearts beat and seeds grow. It is not a ‘decaying dead thing’ but an active generator of energy – of life. But how?

The Core rotates in the opposite direction to the mantle creating heat and energy through friction.

The Core and the Earth are best viewed as two separate bodies – one inside the other, rotating in opposite directions – this creates friction. And friction is a powerful force – it creates heat, energy and magnetism.

The heat from the friction melts the metal and rock at the interface between the mantle and the Core creating great waves of magma (1400 miles thick) inside the Earth.

Earth's interior

The magma surrounding the Core was named the ‘core’ before science became aware of the solid ball contained within the magma. Rather than renaming the magma or just calling it ‘the surrounding magma’, they named the actual solid core the ‘inner core’ and left the name ‘core’ for the thick molten metal and rock that swishes around the core. When I refer to the ‘Core’ I always mean the solid inner core.

The energy at the Core rises up through the body of the planet and is magnetically attracted to the Sun – so more energy is drawn to the sun-facing side of the Earth. This is the energy that rises up in us each morning and leaves us each night.

The interacting energies from both the Core and the Sun create the atmosphere of Earth and the magnetic field surrounding the Earth. Artist’s rendition

The interacting energies from both the Core and the Sun create the atmosphere of Earth and the magnetic field surrounding the Earth. Artist’s rendition

EVIDENCE

The beauty of Step 2 is that one mechanism, one action could be the source of so many of the dynamic phenomena of Earth – everything from the heat, energy and magnetism of the planet, to weather patterns and ocean currents.

I set out to investigate what scientists do and don’t know about the Earth’s Core and how it affects our planet. This is what I found:

How to make an earthquake

How to make an earthquake

For many years scientists believed that the Earth was one body and made up of different layers (the crust, the mantle and the core), but ‘acting’ as one. Then in 1996 two seismologists from Columbia University, Xiaodong Song and Paul Richards, discovered something interesting while comparing seismic waves from different earthquakes.

They found that earthquakes that strike in the same place, but at different times (up to 20 years apart), travel through the Earth along the same path – until they hit the Core and then they diverge. From this they proposed that the Core is a separate body (within the body of the Earth) and that it travels 1° faster per year.

Since then seismologists have found different rotational speeds and different rotational directions. It is difficult for them to say exactly what is going on at the Core because the data is inconclusive. I explore the research in depth in an earlier post: “The Spin of Earth’s Sacred Heart”. But whatever my misgivings are – seismologists have settled on eastward ‘super-rotation’ (same direction as the planet) at approx 1 – 3° faster per year.

Studies showing westward (opposing) Core rotation

Studies showing westward (opposing) Core rotation

So if opposing Core rotation cannot be identified through seismic wave comparisons, can it be identified by its effects? I mean if the Core is spinning in the opposite direction to the mantle – what would we expect to find?

We should expect an increase in heat, energy and magnetism as we move closer to the source. And this is exactly what we find!

However scientists do not think a spinning Core is the source, but rather convection and gyros in the magma surrounding the Core. As I mentioned earlier, the solid metal ball of the Core is viewed as an inactive, dead weight. It is the magma surrounding the Core that is believed to create the heat, energy and magnetism of our planet. But that view is problematic.

The Earth’s Core is as hot as the surface of the Sun – 6000°C

The Earth’s Core is as hot as the surface of the Sun – 6000°C

Temperatures at the Core reach 6000°C. Until recently it was thought that the heat was due to radio-active decay, but a 2011 article in Physics World explains that there is a lot more heat and energy coming out of the Core than radio-active decay can account for.

Stuart Jay Freedman, nuclear physicist and KamLAND collaborator

Stuart Jay Freedman, nuclear physicist and KamLAND collaborator

The article describes how an international team of physicists worked together in a KamLAND collaboration to study ‘neutrinos’ (little sub-atomic particles). The researchers studied temperatures from 20,000 bore holes around the Earth and they found that the Earth’s interior was giving off 44 TW of heat energy! To give you an idea of how powerful that is – the world’s population consumes 15 TW of energy. The physicists concluded that up to 20 TW of energy could come from radio-active decay, but where the rest of the energy is coming from, they don’t know:

“One thing we can say with near certainty is that radioactive decay alone is not enough to account for Earth’s heat energy,” says KamLAND collaborator Stuart Freedman of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. “Whether the rest is primordial heat or comes from another source is an unanswered question.”
The Earth is a Magnet

There is also a problem with claiming magma as the source of the Earth’s magnetic field. As NASA writes in their article “Scientific Challenges: Magnetic Field Dynamics”:

AEGift“The problem of explaining the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field was once ranked by Albert Einstein as among the three most important unsolved problems in physics. Although today it is widely recognized that the Earth’s magnetic field is generated by a dynamo that operates in the fluid outer core, the details of how that dynamo works remain far from understood.” ~ NASA

The problem that Einstein had (and scientists still have) is that there can’t be any ‘ferromagnetism’ in the magma surrounding the Core because it’s too hot: Iron loses its usual magnetic properties at the Curie Temperature of 1043 K (about 770°C or 1418°F) and the magma surrounding the Core is as hot as the surface of the sun – 6000°C!  Instead the Earth’s magnetic field must be due to some kind of dynamo, but quoting NASA: “the details of how that dynamo works remain far from understood.” 

Perhaps it’s not the magma, but the Core :

“The Earth has been described as a dynamo, but this is not strictly accurate. A dynamo creates electricity by rapidly rotating a conductor.” ~ An Index of Possibilities

The Earth’s Core is primarily made of iron – a magnet, a conductor. And as the quote says “rapidly rotating a conductor” defines a dynamo, and a dynamo creates a magnetic field. Instead of trying to figure out how super-hot magma could generate the Earth’s magnetism – opposing Core rotation could be the source of both the magnetism and the super-hot magma!

This is not a new suggestion. Back in 1996, a few months after the independent movement of the Core was discovered (and two years before opposing rotation was first identified), physicist William R. Corliss wrote an article, The Motor of the World in which he asked:

“Why couldn’t this planet-size piece of rotating machinery actually be a generator rather than a motor? The kinetic energy of the faster-spinning inner core might actually create the geomagnetic field.”

The Core is a Magnet

The Core is a Magnet

There are two other aspects of the Earth’s magnetism that are difficult to explain:

  1. The magnetic field is drifting westward. But if both the Earth and the Core rotate eastward, why does the field drift westward? Quoting from a 2013 article at Space.com: “Weird Shift of Earth’s Magnetic Field Explained“:

    For more than 300 years, scientists have recorded a westward-drifting feature in the  field that models have been unable to explain… The field surrounding the Earth changes over time, with shifts occurring most prominently in low latitudes in the Western Hemisphere. The fast-moving magnetic patches that occur near the equator drift approximately 10 miles (20 kilometers) per year. These changes are driven by intense regions of activity in the core, the cause of which scientists have been at a loss to explain.”

  2. The magnetic field extends thousands of miles into space. Quoting from Mysteries of the Inner Earth: Geomagnetism:

    Scientists are somewhat vague as to how a magnetic field could extend 2,000 miles beyond an electric current. It requires a very powerful current to produce even relatively weak magnetic effects a very short distance above the flow. The electrical resistance of iron, at the alleged temperatures of the core, would be staggering. A steady flow of electricity requires constant potential differences…
    The magnitude, width, and depth of such currents [in magma] would have to be unbelievable to extend the magnetic field even a small fraction of the distance required, and the EMF [electromotive force] required to produce it would be even more incredible. Where could such an EMF come from? ” ~ Joseph H. Cater

“The electro-magnet beneath us has been running since before the rocks were formed. It casts a force field thousands of miles into space and affects compass bearings, weather patterns. bird migrations, aurora, planet growth, radio reception and possibly evolution itself.” ~ An Index of Possibilities Credit: NASA/GSFC

“The electro-magnet beneath us has been running since before the rocks were formed. It casts a force field thousands of miles into space and affects compass bearings, weather patterns. bird migrations, aurora, planet growth, radio reception and possibly evolution itself.” ~ An Index of Possibilities Credit: NASA/GSFC

Those are some of the problems scientists have in trying to explain the heat, energy and magnetism coming from the Core – especially if they try to explain the magma surrounding the Core as the source.

I would like to include evidence that supports Step 2:

Magnetic currents measured on Earth remain predominantly on the sunlit side of the Earth. Image from the British Geological Survey

Magnetic currents measured on Earth remain predominantly on the sunlit side of the Earth. Image from the British Geological Survey

The illustration on the left comes from the British Geological Survey website. It shows how active the Earth’s magnetic currents are, and also how they “remain predominantly on the sunlit side of the Earth. This agrees with Step 2, which says that the energy produced by the Core is electro-magnetically attracted to the Sun, causing more energy to be attracted to the side of the planet facing the Sun.

The British Geological Survey also says that the Earth’s magnetic field shows specific rhythms – including a daily rhythm. The graph below shows the movement of the magnetic field over Scotland on one day – 24 June 2004. Notice how it is flat during the night hours and shows distinct movement from east to west, mirroring the movement of the sun, during daylight hours. Once again this agrees with Step 2, which says the energy from the Core attracted  to the Sun is what makes us rise each morning and leaves us to sleep each night.

Recorded daily variation in declination over one day at Hartland observatory (top) and effect of these variations on a compass needle, exaggerated (bottom): http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/education/earthmag.html

Recorded daily variation in declination over one day at Hartland observatory (top) and effect of these variations on a compass needle, exaggerated (bottom): http://www.geomag.bgs.ac.uk/education/earthmag.html

The data from the British Geological Survey supports Step 2, but their explanation does not – they say the Sun acts alone to cause these changing events in the Earth’s magnetism. Is this because the Core is not involved or because we simply haven’t figured it out yet?

The image below from NASA also agrees with Step 2. NASA notes an area of plasma (electrically charged particles)  is denser on the sunlit side of the Earth (the Sun in to the right of the picture). I find it interesting that NASA says it is ‘unexpected’ – more and more we are uncovering data that does not agree with our current understanding of the workings of our Earth and our Solar System.

The red image is the neutral atom glow from hot plasma as seen by the High Energy Neutral Atom imager (HENA) instrument on board IMAGE. The false color represents density of the hot plasma; orange-white is most dense, red is least. Note that in this case, the hot plasma is densest on Earth's day side, which is unexpected since it comes from the Earth's night side during a magnetic storm. Credit: NASA and the IMAGE science team

The red image is the neutral atom glow from hot plasma as seen by the High Energy Neutral Atom imager (HENA) instrument on board IMAGE. The false color represents density of the hot plasma; orange-white is most dense, red is least. Note that in this case, the hot plasma is densest on Earth’s day side, which is unexpected since it comes from the Earth’s night side during a magnetic storm. Credit: NASA and the IMAGE science team

The interior of the Earth is a living structure consisting of inter-connected and inter-dependent systems – living systems – exactly as it is on the surface of the Earth. Everywhere around us we see life. It is not such a leap of faith to think that “as above, so below”.

Step 2 explained

Step 2 explained

The final word I would like to give to a beautiful and fascinating website called The Keeper of Time, which includes many of the same Hopi writings that the author of Earth Mother Our Womb of Life has drawn from. Below is an excerpt from description of the Core which makes such perfect straightforward sense:

Gaia1 - Copy“In simple terms God is the source of that life which is growing inside us. Where then is the source of all life on Earth?

We must not look for the source of all life that is growing on Earth anywhere other than right here on Earth. If something is growing on Earth its life source cannot be located in outer space. If a tree is growing in your garden the source of its life must be located somewhere near to your garden, the source of the life of the tree in your garden cannot be located somewhere in your neighbors garden. The source of your life cannot be located somewhere in another city. The source of any living organism on planet Earth must be located somewhere close to that specific organism and since there are countless different living organisms on Earth all having their life sustained by one source which we call “God” we can assume that God is everywhere. And yet we must not get away from the fact that the source of the life of a specific tree growing in France cannot be located in America. Just as your life-force is not unfolding on a different continent.

Life comes from one source but divides and enters any organism wherein it can find expression. We can also conclude that the source must be somewhere very close at hand. Close at hand, yet far away in a tree in France and yet in a tree in your garden…where? The source of all life on Earth is located in the heart of the Earth, That which we, so rightly call “Core”.

Is life therefore God? God is the source of the energy growing inside us, the energy we call life, time, and gravity.  The life within our body is God finding expression within us, but it is not God as such.  God as such is two-fold:  the Earth mother and her sacred heart, the Core.  As the Earth mother her identity is feminine.  As the Core his identity is masculine.”

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