What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly

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Our Evolutionary Cycle

Perhaps the greatest difference between native and other
religions is this: we believe in God and evolution. We
believe God’s greatest work is through evolution. God
is the divine artist; evolution is the divine art. Evolution
is God’s Kiln, and man is still in the making.
(Native American Priest)

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

The knowledge being restored in these pages reminds us that  the universe is not separate from God; that the universe’s dynamic, natural (scientific) operation, and our existence upon the Earth, are tied together in a sacred way. As long as we remain within Nature’s purposeful plan upon the Earth, we are following the Great Spirit’s course for us, and all is well. Soon, by the coming choice warned of in this book, our courses can change for the worse. With an enlightened understanding of the Earth and all She means to humankind, the road we walk can be chosen wisely.

The book describes how the evolution of life is not an accident, but a system of development, of growth, of transformation.  Quoting Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

There is a cyclical process in Nature which moves life forward upon each mother world. This advancement of life requires the linear, calendar time we are provided by our Mother Earth. The periodic movements and evolutionary progress within this cycle occur at the end of Purification Times, when each world flies closer to the sun, and the life upon it is evolved to a higher stage due to the excitation present during these times.

The book divides the explanation for evolution into 2 parts: The Sacred Path of Migration and Punctuated Equilibria. I have written about both and devoted a few posts to punctuated equilibria, but now I would like to concentrate more on the Sacred Path of Migration.

I started this post by writing many words and referencing many scientific articles. But then I read a post on another website, HaMoshiach.com and I stopped dead in my tracks. That post said everything I hoped to say and so much more. The author is not Hopi, but the message is the same. So I’ve taken an extract from that wonderful post and I’m reposting it here. I’ve added images, videos and some hyper-links that did not exist in the original post. I quote:

Mayan Calendar

Mayan Calendar

The Mayan calendar ended a 5125 year cycle on 21st December 2012, and 2012 was mistakenly construed to portend the annihilation of the earth. However,  to the Maya the end of a Great Period of 13 b’ak’tuns, was an occasion for great celebration.

Nevertheless, there were people who believed the end of the Mayan calendar foreboded the annihilation of the earth.  The belief in the End of the World was reinforced by an increase in geological disasters such as the earthquake and tsunami that struck Asia on December 26, 2004, hurricane Katrina that flooded 80% of New Orleans on August 28 2005; and the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, that triggered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

There is a tangible atmosphere of relief now that we have passed the 21st December 2012 and the deadline for what many people thought would be the annihilation of the world according to the Mayan calendar, is behind us.

Yes, there has been an increase in the frequency of natural disasters.  And yes, an Event of enormous proportions  is approaching, one that will monopolize the attention of the whole world.  Something new, on a planetary scale, is unfolding in nature, but there is nothing to fear, on the contrary, it is an occasion for celebration.

What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly.  Richard Bach

The world’s most powerful telescope, called the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), is scheduled to be built in 2016.

“It will have a deep impact on the way we perceive our place in the universe and how we understand its history and its future,” says Michiel van Haarlem, interim director general of the SKA project.”‘We know we are going to discover things.”

I know what the scientists will observe with the aid of SKA, and I hope by then they will have improved information that will enable them to correctly interpret the data.  But I need to talk to you about misinterpreted science observations that are adding to the feelings of impending disaster.

Many years ago I found it difficult to talk openly about ‘planet migration’.  But planet migration has at last been observed and it’s an acceptable topic.  I would have taught a lot more people than I did, if I hadn’t been concerned about losing my credibility and their attention.  So I told very few people that all planets migrate ever closer to the Sun and are eventually absorbed into the Sun. At that point in my life, I was the only voice making these comments, and because I was concerned about my credibility,  I would very often leave someone with a diminished version of the Truth.

These days I can explain why planets migrate towards the Sun, but I still have some credibility concerns about explaining how they do so.

What I want to do, is to explain to you that the current theories about how planets migrate are wrong. You might think that I should just dive right in and tell you, but the truth about why and how planets journey closer to the Sun may be difficult for you to accept, and I don’t want you to lose the opportunity to understand as much as you can of the Truth of the glorious planetary system that is your home. So I am going to cautiously approach the areas that you may have difficulty accepting.  But I will get there because I am elderly and I must do this while I am yet able.

It should comfort you to know that the scary theories that are currently gaining recognition about planetary migration are very wrong.  Current theories of why planets move inwards towards the Sun are held up by math that has been worked to fit mistaken theories.  When math has to be worked and worked until it fits a theory, both the theory and the math are wrong.

An article appeared in the Associated Press on August 26, 2009, with this dramatic title: ‘Suicidal’ Planet to be Swallowed by its Sun’. The theory that produced that headline proposes a catastrophe far, far greater than the very worst tsunami imaginable.  And it fuels the concerns of the people who believe in the imminent annihilation of the earth. This is an excerpt from the article:

Astronomers have found what appears to be a gigantic suicidal planet. The odd, fiery planet is so close to its star and so large that it is triggering tremendous plasma tides on the star. Those powerful tides are in turn warping the planet’s zippy less-than-a-day orbit around its star. The result: an ever-closer tango of death, with the planet eventually spiralling into the star.

Planets do not commit suicide!  All solar systems follow very precise Natural Laws.  Whatever Laws apply in a solar system in outer space apply here in our solar system.  Our earth is bracing to move closer to the Sun,  and if you’re reading this, when the day of her Shift is imminent you will be informed, observant, and celebrating.

A separate news article had this to say about the same planet:

The star is called WASP-18 and the planet is WASP-18b after the “Wide Angle Search for Planets” (WASP) team that found them.
The planet circles a star that’s in the constellation Phoenix and is about 325 light-years away from Earth, which means it is in our galactic neighborhood. A light-year is about 5.8 trillion miles.
The planet is 1.9 million miles from its star, 1/50th of the distance between Earth and the sun, our star. And because of that the temperature is about 3,800 degrees.
Its size — 10 times bigger than Jupiter — and its proximity to its star means its likely to die.

http://www.allword-news.co.uk/tag/suicidal-planet-seems-on-death-spiral-into-star/

When a planet is about to enter a sun, it is uninhabited.  There are no life-forms on Wasp 18b.  But there certainly were life-forms on Wasp18b before it reached this stage in its cycle.  The life-forms that once inhabited Wasp 18b have completed their evolution and attained the highest biological form Wasp18b could produce.  And now, as our scientists observe the former inhabitants of Wasp18b through telescopes, those entities are almost certainly watching their former planet too, from a safe distance.  But what our scientists call the destruction of a planet,  THEY CALL THE BIRTH OF A SUN!

Butterfly-fl

“What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly.” Richard Bach

What is to some ‘the end of the world’ is to others ‘rebirth.’

When the data from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) telescope come in it will reveal many more planets entering their suns and hopefully our scientists will understand that it is a common occurrence in the universe, and that a planet on the point of entering its sun is not, “committing suicide” it’s going to be converted into energy to sustain the life of the sun.  Planets are born of suns, and it is their destiny to return to their suns.  When a planet is converted into energy by its sun, the planet is transformed into a sun.  It’s a wonderous Event for a planet when its time has come to be transformed into a sun.

There is a lot of other bad science circulating about planets ‘colliding’, ‘nudging’ and in other calamitous ways interacting with one another.  If you click on the link below, you will find an article entitled ‘The Harsh Destiny of a Planet’, where you will read that a star called HD 82943 has ‘swallowed’ one of its planets. The article states

Did the star HD 82943 swallow one of its planets? What may at a first glance look like the recipe for a dramatic science-fiction story is in fact the well-considered conclusion of a serious scientific study, to be published by a group of astronomers in Switzerland and Spain in tomorrow’s issue of the international research journal “Nature”.  http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso0118/ 

The Harsh Density of a Planet

‘The Harsh Density of a Planet’ from the European Space Agency

When scientists observe something new, something that they don’t understand, they hunt for a theory that will describe what they saw. Once they have a theory in hand, the next step is to create an elegant formula that supports the theory.  Since a theory remains a hypothesis until is has been supported by experiments, and mathematics is a quick method of experimentation, scientists often create mathematics to fit their observations.

As the data from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) telescope will show, when a planet enters a sun it restores the sun’s internal energy.

Planetary migration is not a theory, it is a Natural Law. However, the explanations scientists are putting forward to explain planetary migration are only theories. And the math which they use to support their theories is wrong. I am telling you this because some of the theories for what goes on in a solar system sound scary, but they’re wrong. Look at this incredible headline, “New solar system formation models indicate that Jupiter’s foray robbed Mars of mass.” The article explains The Grand Tack Scenario, a theory that proposes that Jupiter stripped Mars of formation material:

Planetary scientists have long wondered why Mars is only about half the size and one-tenth the mass of Earth. As next-door neighbors in the inner solar system, probably formed about the same time, why isn’t Mars more like Earth and Venus in size and mass? A paper published in the journal Nature this week provides the first cohesive explanation and, by doing so, reveals an unexpected twist in the early lives of Jupiter and Saturn as well….

The “Grand Tack Scenario” demonstrates that the gas giant Jupiter may have briefly migrated into the inner solar system and influenced the formation of Mars (right), stripping away materials that resulted in its relatively small size in comparison to Venus and the Earth….

Dr. Kevin Walsh, a research scientist at Southwest Research Institute, led an international team performing simulations of the early solar system, demonstrating how an infant Jupiter may have migrated to within 1.5 astronomical units (AU, the distance from the Sun to the Earth) of the Sun, stripping a lot of material from the region and essentially starving Mars of formation materials.

Over the years many mathematicians have themselves expressed a lack of confidence in the ability of their field to actually prove the correctness of a theory.

 As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality. Albert Einstein

quote-as-far-as-the-laws-of-mathematics-refer-to-reality-they-are-not-certain-and-as-far-as-they-are-albert-einstein-226558

Another famous physicist said,

The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve. We should be grateful for it and hope that it will remain valid in future research and that it will extend, for better or for worse, to our pleasure, even though perhaps also to our bafflement, to wide branches of learning. Eugene Wigner

He proposed that there were arguments that could,

put a heavy strain on our faith in our theories and on our belief in the reality of the concepts which we form. It would give us a deep sense of frustration in our search for what I call ‘the ultimate truth’. The reason that such a situation is conceivable is that, fundamentally, we do not know why our theories work so well. Hence, their accuracy may not prove their truth and consistency.

Mathematics is not holy writ!

And then there is Occam’s Razor, the law of parsimony, which states,

When you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better. William of Ockham

Simply put,

Nature always tends to act in the simplest way. Daniel Bernoulli

Quotation-Daniel-Bernoulli-nature-Meetville-Quotes-228362

The current explanations and math put forward to support planetary migration are far from simple, rather, they are convoluted to the point of science fiction.

When astronomers use the word ‘star’ they are talking about a sun.  I prefer to use the familiar term ‘sun’ because the term ‘star’ is also used for bright planets such as Venus, ‘the Morning Star.’

So, did HD 82943 swallow one of its planets?  Suns certainly do absorb stars, but it  absolutely is not cannibalism as this article suggests, “The VLT Uncovers Traces of Stellar Cannibalism” (May 9, 2001).  Nor is it suicide as this article suggests, “‘Suicidal’ Planet to be Swallowed by its Sun” (August 26, 2009). For the evolution of the solar system and the continuation of all the life-forms within the solar system it is a Natural Law that a sun absorbs its planets

This surprising discovery represents important observational evidence that planets may fall into their host stars. 

Planets don’t ‘fall into their host stars’ in some random, accidental way. Planets are produced by their sun and they migrate back to their sun to be converted into energy. A solar system is the ultimate recycling living organism.

The parts of a solar system function as a unit.  Every planet responds to the needs of the sun in which birthed it.  Planet migration is the natural mechanism by which the individual parts of the solar system naturally respond to the needs of the whole. Planet absorption is the natural mechanism by which a sun is refueled. Nothing chaotic takes place in a solar system. Read this next absurd article:

But how do you nudge Earth into a new zip code? The most plausible model, out of several other unlikely mechanisms that were present in the very young solar system, is a gravitational billiard ball game called planet-planet scattering….. The unlucky “odd planet out” would have wound up falling into the sun, being ejected from the solar system, or crashing into another terrestrial planet.

http://news.discovery.com/space/was-earth-a-migratory-planet-120418.html

was Earth a migratory planetDoes that sound remotely like Occam’s Razor?  Does it sound like a feasible explanation for the conduct of a vast, living organism? Solar systems do not play ball games. Planets do not collide, crash, fall or scatter. And there are no ‘unlucky odd planets out’.

God does not play dice with the Universe.  Albert Einstein

When scientists – who should know better - promulgate theories of planet ‘scattering’, ‘nudging’, ‘falling’ and ‘crashing’; and when they blame humanity for global warming, it’s hardly surprising that so many good people are afraid.  Bad science, global warming, the Mayan calendar, and misinterpreted Bible prophecies have all contributed to the popular belief that the earth is on the brink of destruction.

[I am now skipping over a large section of the original post. The section I’m missing refers to the importance of remaining in nature’s calendar Time and quotes verses from Daniel in the Old Testament. Our faithful adherence to the Earth’s forward-moving Time is a vital aspect of Earth Mother Our Womb of Life and I will soon devote at least one post to discussing it, but for now I want to take one final extract from the original post that discusses the science. I do however recommend you read the original post in its entirety.]

Yalak qets nuwach `amad gowral qets yowm Dan 12:13

Rest in your lot until the end of days (and you will inherit Heaven) Daniel Chapter 12 Verse 13

Scientists do not yet know that the earth and the core rotate in opposite directions, therefore they are intrigued by what they consider to be strange, inexplicable anomalies that occur inside the earth. And since it is the purpose of science to comprehend the inexplicable, scientists come up with theories about processes in the earth’s interior, some of which are close to the truth, some of which are not. Unfortunately it is often the case that once scientists have latched on to a theory they do their utmost to make the facts fit the theory. You can find one strange theory here:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080208091314.htm

I felt discouraged from taking the time to read the article thoroughly because the computer generated image on the website is completely unnatural, however, a skim-read provided the following information:

It has long been known that the inner core of the earth, a sphere consisting of a solid mass with a radius of about 1,200 km, is mainly made up of iron. However, seismic observations have shown that elastic waves pass more rapidly through the core in directions that are parallel to the earth’s axis of rotation than in directions parallel to the equator ­- a phenomenon that has not been previously explained. At the high temperatures that prevail in the core of the earth, these waves should pass at the same speed regardless of their direction….. In (a) new study the researchers present (computer) simulations of how seismic waves are reproduced in iron under the conditions that prevail in the core of the earth, showing a difference of about 12 percent depending on their direction-­which suffices as an explanation for the puzzling observations.

At the following website you will learn that scientists are puzzling over “the mysterious layer where the mantle meets the core.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101027133152.htm

Andy Nowacki, at the School of Earth Sciences at Bristol University, said:

When a large earthquake occurs and waves travel through the Earth, they are affected in different ways, and we can examine their properties to work out what is happening thousands of miles beneath our feet, a region where we can never go. This study focusses on a mysterious layer where the mantle meets the core, a sphere of iron at the centre of the Earth 7,000 km (4400 miles) across. This part just above the core has curious properties which we can measure using seismic waves that pass through it.”

Professor Mike Kendall added:

This part of the Earth is incredibly important. The lowermost mantle is where two colossal, churning engines — the mantle and the core — meet and interact. The core is moving very quickly and creates our magnetic field which protects us from the Sun’s rays. The mantle above is sluggish, but drives the motion of the plates on the Earth’s surface, which build mountains, feed volcanoes and cause earthquakes. Measuring the flow in the lowermost mantle is vital to understanding the long term evolution of the Earth.

And, since all life on earth, including human life, is intimately linked to the earth, understanding the long term evolution of the earth is vital to understanding the long term evolution of mankind.

The life of every organism on earth evolves in association with the earth; indeed the evolution of all life-forms on earth is inseparable from the evolution of the earth.  Therefore, obviously, a better understanding of the evolution of the earth will give mankind a better understanding of the evolution of humans.

As I have said, the opposing direction of rotation of the earth and the core is natural and has been going on since the earth’s earliest beginning, nevertheless, when this fact becomes public knowledge (and I suspect that day is not far off), it could be used to frighten you into evacuating real-time.

Years ago, when I was little more than a child, I found it very difficult to explain the details of the earth’s evolution. I cautiously explained that the planets had formed in a nebula and had then migrated inward, closer to the sun, to their current orbital positions.  I drew pictures of planets migrating closer to a central sun and I called the migration ‘planetary shift’. A handful of people believed me, perhaps because it made sense to them, perhaps because they intuitively knew who I was, but most people thought I was a bit mad. I am pleased to say that these days the term ‘planetary migration’ is even found in Wikipedia. Click on the link below.

The positions of the planets often shifted, and planets have switched places. This planetary migration now is thought to have been responsible for much of the Solar System’s early evolution.

The generally accepted theory of planet formation from a protoplanetary disk predicts such planets cannot form so close to their stars

While I no longer feel uncomfortable talking about planets moving between orbits, there is still a great deal wrong with current theories of planetary migration. Scientists are right about planets forming via the core accretion mechanism, on the other hand they are wrong about the method of planetary migration. They propose that the planets underwent a lot of ‘nudging;, ‘bombardment’ and ‘collisions’ before settling into their current orbits. One theory proposes that Jupiter and Saturn “nudged Uranus and Neptune just right to cause them to migrate outward from the sun.”  I do not understand how this idea gained acceptance. Planets cannot ‘nudge’ one another ‘just right’; if one planet ‘nudged’ another the results would be catastrophic! How the scientific community could consider the concept of planets nudging’one another ‘just right’ is bewildering.

A new model of our solar system is generating some excitement. It is called the Nice model, after the city of Nice, France, where the scientists met to develop the theory in 2004. It addresses how the orbits of the outer planets in our solar system could have changed over millions of years to become as we measure them today. Though the four giant planets have nearly circular orbits, their inclinations and eccentricities have been a difficulty for the Nebula Hypothesis. The Nice model proposes that Uranus and Neptune originally formed much closer to our sun than where they currently reside. Also, at one time Jupiter and Saturn supposedly had different orbits that nudged Uranus and Neptune just right to cause them to migrate outward from the sun. The model also proposes that matter left over after planet formation would cause the newly formed planets’ orbits to change. The enthusiasm for the Nice model is because it purports to explain not only why the planets are in their present orbits, but also some of the small objects in the solar  system and why there would have been an intense bombardment of impacts after the planets formed. If the large gas planets in our solar system were migrating outward, this would cause collisions and drastically affect the asteroids as well as objects in the Kuiper region, beyond Neptune’s orbit. The Nice model does seem to give some very results very close to the observed characteristics of the orbits of the four giant planets.  http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j21_3/j21_3_12-14.pdf

These days it is easier for me to talk about planets migrating from one orbit to another because it is ‘a widely accepted theory.’

The discovery of the ‘hot Jupiters’ led to the realization of the importance of orbital migration. This comes about because of the perceived difficulties in accumulating a core directly at small radii interior to the so called ‘snow line’. Instead, it is possible that the protoplanet formed at larger radii and migrated inwards.  http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/education/spring07/scalo/secure/PapaloizouTerquem06PlanForm.pdf

The earth has evolved considerably since its formation in a nebula. And each step in the earth’s evolution is catalyzed by two natural occurrences

  1. The ejection of a core
  2. Migration, closer to the sun        

The great and powerful force of nature, deep inside the earth, is responsible for planetary migration.  Human life is intimately linked to the earth and the core, and human development is utterly dependent upon planetary migration. 

You will be told that the core will be ejected and life on earth will end. As I have said, that much is true, but a new life, will begin. As I have been explaining since I was a child, ‘Far away, in the furthermost reaches of the solar system, packed between layers of ice, is the story of our origin. And there, where Venus shines more brightly than any other star in the sky, there is our destiny.’

[Below are a 2 figures from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life which illustrate the cyclical movement of planets orbit by orbit closer to the Sun, called the Sacred Path of Migration.]

figure 5

Figure 6

Purification Time – Is the Earth in Labour?

Mk’s bk pg 74-75 – Is the Earth in Labour? Evidence of Earth’s rotation slowing down.

Is the Earth in Labour? Evidence of Earth’s rotation slowing down.

In the post Purification Time – Earth Changes I give evidence of the following changes:

  • a sharp increase in number and intensity of earthquakes;
  • unexplained energy output from the Core;
  • a slowing down of the Earth’s rotation; and
  • a weakening of the Earth’s magnetic field.

I’m writing about it again because there is more recent evidence of great geological unrest. The video below shows global seismic activity for 30 days between March and April 2014. And note there were nineteen 6.0M+ earthquakes, seven 7.0M+ earthquakes and two 8.0M+ events!! This is an incredible amount of earthquakes! Please have a look at the video below for more detail.

Mk's bk pg 30-31: Weddell Sea - Earth's Yoni

The Weddell Sea – Earth’s Yoni

In the post The Weddell Sea in Antarctica: The Earth’s Yoni, I give evidence of the warming of the deep waters of the Weddell Sea - where the Earth’s Core is predicted to emerge – and explain how these changes are causing global climactic instability.

Since writing that post last year the West Antarctic ice sheet has become even more unstable. On 12 May 2014  a news story broke from NASA - The “Unstable” West Antarctic Ice Sheet:

“The new finding that the eventual loss of a major section of West Antarctica’s ice sheet “appears unstoppable” was not completely unexpected by scientists who study this area. The study, led by glaciologist Eric Rignot at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and the University of California, Irvine, follows decades of research and theory suggesting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is inherently vulnerable to change.”

The video below by NASA explains the recent finding of unstable conditions in Antarctica:

And yet another recent news story caught my eye (see pic below) from the Times 11 May 2014 - Antarctic Ice threatened by undersea volcano!

“Antarctica’s ice sheets may face a far more imminent threat than climate change: scientists have found a new volcano forming a mile under the ice, which is threatening a full eruption. The volcano seems to be part of a much bigger volcanic system that is generating earthquakes and releasing heat into the ice above.

The scientists believe the activity is caused by a volcanic hotspot – a giant blob of superheated rock rising from deep within the Earth. It could mean the area is a rift zone, where the Earth’s tectonic plates are pulling apart…

There are six giant glaciers in West Antarctica, with evidence suggesting they are all flowing much faster than in the past, releasing 77% more water a year than in 1973. The causes are not understood but scientists say climate change is a likely factor.”

The Times 11 May 2014 - Antarctic ice threatened by undersea volcano

The Times 11 May 2014 – Antarctic ice threatened by undersea volcano

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life and the Coming New Heaven (and the clue is in the title):

Our Earth Mother is now in labor. The increasingly severe weather and geological disturbances are more than what most scientists believe; they are birth pangs originating from deep within the heart of the Earth. The Earth is laboring to birth what some native peoples have referred to as Her Egg (Her Core), which will emerge from the Earth’s birth canal in an Antarctic sea.

Mikes bk pg 75

“I think people have become very jaded and desensitized to news about earthquakes, to the point that anything under 8 is regarded as inconsequential.” (post in ATS Forum)

 

Life Began in the Icy Orbit of Pluto

P1120122 - Copy

“You could say that the universe is in the business of making life – or that God is an organic chemist.”
~ Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, “Seeds of Life”, Omni Magazine Interview, 1983

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

On July 21, 1986, more than 260 scientists from over 20 nations gathered in California to discuss the origin of life on Earth. Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, director of the chemical evolution laboratory of the University of Maryland, expressed the opinion of everyone present when he said, “… The processes which led to life on Earth must have started elsewhere in the universe…”

It is common knowledge that the conditions prevailing in the Earth’s present position (approximately 149 ½ million km. from the sun) are unsuitable for the formation of life. Any search for the origins of humanity has to look for a place with much colder conditions, and with an atmosphere of hydrogen and hydrogen compounds. The most plausible explanation is that terrestrial life is a phenomenon which originated in an outlying orbit of the Solar System, where microorganisms were gathered by the convolutions of the Earth and packed into hard ice – conditions perfect for the preservation of organic material.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which include a number of explanatory videos.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which includes a number of explanatory videos.

dropstone NamibiaThere is an interesting theory that Earth was once covered in ice, known as “Snowball Earth“. I don’t know who originated the theory – different sources claim different authorship, but certainly the work of geologists Paul Hoffman and Dan Schrag contributed significantly. They found ‘dropstones’ in Namibia, Africa. Dropstones are rocks and boulders believed to be dropped into sediment from icebergs. The fact that so many are found in the hot dry deserts of Namibia led them to propose an ice-age existed which extended as far south as the equator. Since its initial proposal Snowball Earth has gained substantial evidential support. There is a dedicated website by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Geology & Paleontology Division) which explores the theory: Snowballearth.org

Why is it interesting? Because this it the time when the first life forms are thought to have evolved. An informative and fascinating article in Discover Magazine, February 2008, entitled: Did Life Evolve in Ice? brings together the work of chemists, physicists and astro-biologists who all arrived independently at the notion that the “funky properties of frozen water may have made life possible.” Below is a series of excerpts, including the original links:

Discover Magazine February 2008

Discover Magazine February 2008

“For decades, those studying the origin of life have imagined that it emerged in balmy conditions from primordial soups, tropical ponds, even boiling volcanic vents. Miller [Stanley L. Miller, renowned origin of life chemist] and and a few other scientists began to suspect that life began not in warmth but in ice—at temperatures that few living things can now survive. The very laws of chemistry may have favored ice, says Bada [Jeffery Bada, chemist and astrobiologist], now at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. “We’ve been arguing for a long time,” he says, “that cold conditions make much more sense, chemically, than warm conditions.”

*****

… strange things happen when you freeze chemicals in ice. Some reactions slow down, but others actually speed up—especially reactions that involve joining small molecules into larger ones. This seeming paradox is caused by a process called eutectic freezing. As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: Only molecules of water join the growing crystal, while impurities like salt or cyanide are excluded. These impurities become crowded in microscopic pockets of liquid within the ice, and this crowding causes the molecules to collide more often. Chemically speaking, it transforms a tepid seventh-grade school dance into a raging molecular mosh pit.

“Usually as you cool things, the reaction rates go down,” concluded Leslie Orgel, who studied the origins of life at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, from the 1960s until his death last October. “But with eutectic freezing, the concentrations go up so fast that they more than make up” for the difference.

“The strong point of freezing,” according to Orgel, “is that you concentrate things very efficiently without evaporation.” Freezing also helps preserve fragile molecules like nucleobases, extending their lifetime from days to centuries and giving them time to accumulate and perhaps organize into something more interesting—like life.

Orgel and his coworkers proposed these ideas in 1966, when he showed that frozen cyanide efficiently assembles into larger molecules. Alan Schwartz, a biochemist at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands, took the idea further when he showed in 1982 that frozen cyanide, in the presence of ammonia, can form a nucleobase called adenine.

*****

Hauke Trinks and wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland

Hauke Trinks and local wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland, far north of the Arctic Circle, where he went to study the evolution of life in sea ice – similar conditions to prehistoric ‘Snowball Earth’. Credit: Marie Tieche

[Pre-historic] Earth may have cooled to an average surface temperature of –40°F and a crust of ice as much as 1,000 feet thick may have covered the oceans. Many scientists have puzzled over how life could have arisen on a planet that was essentially a giant snowball. The answer, Trinks [Hauke Trinks, physicist at Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in Germany] suspected, involved sea ice.

Trinks had become interested in sea ice 10 years before, while studying its tendency to accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and concentrate them in liquid pockets within the ice. He set out to explore whether a layer of ice covering early Earth’s oceans might have gathered and assembled organic molecules.”…

By the time Trinks returned to Hamburg in 2003, he had formulated a theory that ice was doing much more than just concentrating chemicals. The ice surface is a checkerboard of positive and negative charges; he imagined those charges grabbing individual nucleobases and stacking them like Pringles in a can, helping them coalesce into a chain of RNA. “The surface layer between ice and liquid is very complicated,” he says. “There is strong bonding between the surface of the ice and the liquid. Those bondings are important for producing long organic chains like RNA.”

At a lecture in Hamburg in 2003, Trinks met up with chemist Christof Biebricher, who was studying how the first RNA chains could have formed in the absence of the enzymes that guide their formation in living cells. Trinks approached Biebricher with his sea ice theory, but to Biebricher, the experiments to test it sounded messy—more like a margarita recipe than a serious scientific investigation. “Chemists,” says Biebricher, “do not like heterogeneous substances like ice.” But Trinks convinced him to try it in his laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

dna-and-rnaBiebricher sealed small amounts of RNA nucleobases—adenine, cytosine, guanine—with artificial seawater into thumb-size plastic tubes and froze them. After a year, he thawed the tubes and analyzed them for chains of RNA.

For decades researchers had tried to coax RNA chains to form under all sorts of conditions without using enzymes; the longest chain formed, which Orgel accomplished in 1982, consisted of about 40 nucleobases. So when Biebricher analyzed his own samples, he was amazed to see RNA molecules up to 400 bases long. In newer, unpublished experiments he says he has observed RNA molecules 700 bases long.

*****

That is a good start, but it leaves unanswered the question: How do you get from tiny snippets of RNA to longer, well-crafted chains that could have acted as the first enzymes, doing fancy things like copying themselves. The shortest RNA enzyme chains known today are about 50 bases long; most have more than 100. To work effectively, moreover, an RNA enzyme must fold correctly, which requires exactly the right sequence of bases.

A young scientist named Alexander Vlassov stumbled upon a possible answer. He was working at SomaGenics, a biotech company in Santa Cruz, California, to develop RNA enzymes that latch on to the hepatitis C virus. His RNA enzymes were behaving strangely: They normally consisted of a single segment of RNA, but every time he cooled them below freezing to purify them, the chain of RNA spontaneously joined its ends into a circle, like a snake biting its tail. As Vlassov worked to fix the technical glitch, he noticed that another RNA enzyme, called hairpin, also acted strangely. At room temperature, hairpin acts like scissors, snipping other RNA molecules into pieces. But when Vlassov froze it, it ran in reverse: It glued other RNA chains together end to end.

Vlassov and his coworkers, Sergei Kazakov and Brian Johnston, realized that the ice was driving both enzymes to work in reverse. Normally when an enzyme cuts an RNA chain in two, a water molecule is consumed in the process, and when two RNA chains are joined, a water molecule is expelled. By removing most of the liquid water, the ice creates conditions that allow the RNA enzyme to work in just one direction, joining RNA chains. The SomaGenics scientists wondered whether an icy spot on early Earth could have driven a primitive enzyme to do the same. 

*****

Miller died on May 20, 2007, but the provocative theory he helped nurture lives on. In the latest twist, Miller’s ideas are influencing not just theories about life’s origin on Earth but also investigations about the potential for life elsewhere in the solar system. 

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

In an article in the July 2013 issue of Discover Magazine (once again written by Douglas Fox): “Life Under Antarctic’s Ice”, a group of scientists discovered a subglacial lake half a mile under Antarctica, which contained something no one thought was possible – life!

“On Jan. 28, Trista Vick-Majors, one of Priscu’s Ph.D. students, took a long-awaited step: She added DNA-sensitive dye to a sample of lake water — the first attempt to detect life in Lake Whillans. As she viewed it through a microscope, she saw specks of green shining against a background of black — cells glowing in response to the dye — as many as 1.6 million cells in each cubic inch of water. Those cells were the first ever found unambiguously in a subglacial lake.”

They thought life was impossible in the subglacial lake, not just because of the cold, but the lack of sunlight.

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Credit: Discover magazine

“Only the upper 10 to 30 feet of water in these lakes was frozen as ice, so sunlight filtered through, allowing life to power itself through photosynthesis. But a lake as deeply buried as Vostok [another subglacial lake] would be entirely dark, so any life there would have to use some other energy source. At that time, the question of what life might inhabit Lake Vostok was becoming increasingly relevant to people who were looking for life elsewhere in the solar system.”

pluto_core

Pluto with its Core

This is a common notion – that life requires the Sun. I recently took a university short course in eco-systems and I was surprised at how the literature gave solar energy as the only source for life. Yet this completely overlooks life found in the deep oceans near volcanic vents and the numerous translucent and blind life forms found in deep caves - who have never seen sunlight. Heat and energy coming from the Earth’s Core have been shown to provide the necessary energy for life (see video below). In the orbit of Pluto, where sunlight is limited, the planet’s Core provides the heat and energy for life to develop.

In this post I have provided evidence that:
  • Earth was once covered in ice,
  • life is believed to have evolved in ice, and
  • present day icy conditions on Earth show an abundance of simple life forms, in particular single-cell organisms – even when there is no sunlight.

But the book doesn’t only state that life began on an icy cold Earth – but that Earth was once in the orbit of Pluto, that’s why it was so cold. Perhaps it is best to look at the Pluto itself to see if it can offer us any information:

The video above from Space Telescope Science Institute was published in 2010. I include it here because astronomers have unexpectedly discovered that Pluto is not “ just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world”. Quoting from the video:

“Pluto got redder, markedly redder, just over that very short time span [1994-2002].” ~ Marc Buie, astronomer Southwest Research Institute. “I was expecting that if we would see any change at all it would be very, very subtle and instead it seems like Pluto is changing perhaps a little faster than I would have expected.” ~ Will Grundy, astronomer, Lowell Observatory. What Pluto’s changing landscape means is anybody’s guess.

“We can no longer interpret what we are seeing as the result of a static surface that’s just changing in the direction we’re looking at it. We really have to have change taking place on the surface to explain the observations.” ~Buie “Observations that hint the Pluto is not just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world on the solar system’s final frontier.”

New Horizons - an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

New Horizons – an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

The more we learn about Pluto the more we discard old ideas - the difficulty is figuring out new explanations to replace our old ones. In 2015 an unmanned space probe, New Horizons, will pass by and photograph Pluto and hopefully provide new information. Quoting from a BBC article entitled: “Pluto’s dynamic surface revealed by Hubble images“:

“Alan Stern, who is principal investigator on the mission, said that with every great planetary reconnaissance mission “we have always learnt that when we get there, we are blown away by how primitive our ideas were from blurry images taken from Earth.

He told BBC News: “When we get there, the odds are very high that we will have so much more information and rich detail that all our views circa 1990 and 2000 and 2010 will appear antiquated. That’s why I don’t like to make predictions.”

He added: “No one predicted river valleys on Mars, or volcanoes on the Galilean satellites, or that Mercury was mostly a core and little else. It’s entirely likely that Pluto will be something so surprising that everything we’ve done so far looks quaint in comparison.”

I hope the evidence I presented here gives you cause to think that there is more to our Solar System than we currently believe. Quoting the last paragraph from “Did Life Evolve In Ice?“:

“If life arose in ice on Earth, then why not on Mars, Europa, or Enceladus? “You’ve got to keep an open mind in this business,” Bada says. “If I were going to make a bet about what we’d find if we discover life elsewhere in the universe, I would suspect it would be more cold-adapted than hot-adapted.” “

In the next post I’ll examine the notion that evolution is compelled by the Earth migrating from the orbit of Pluto – orbit by orbit – across the Solar System to where it is today.

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released - February 2010. Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released – February 2010.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

God’s Evolutionary Process: Punctuated Equilibria

God's Evolutionary Process: The Sacred Path of Migration and  Punctuated Equilibria

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

Present day ideas about evolution arise from those of Charles Darwin, who envisioned many, small transitional changes in organisms, with off spring varying slightly from their parents. As a small change proved advantageous, it was implemented. As later changes brought further improvements for survival and reproduction, they were carried into future generations. However, all efforts to trace the origin of man are dependent upon a fossil record which is unable to provide an unbroken series of transitional forms. Rather than supporting an unbroken pattern of development, fossil evidence strengthens the case for punctuated equilibria.

Our fossil record doesn’t match our explanation for evolution. The quote below from the textbook: “Explore Evolution” explains how “punctuated equilibria” (or equilibrium) came about:

“Many paleontologists are well aware of the conflict between the fossil record and neo-Darwinian theory [Darwin's theory is now known as ne0-Darwinism since the inclusion of genetics]. In the traditional view, the fossil record was always to blame for the missing pieces of the evolutionary puzzle. Darwin, himself, had said the fossil record was ” woefully incomplete”.

By the early 1970s, some scientists including paleontologists Niles Eldredge and the late Stephen Jay Gould, began to become dissatisfied with this explanation. “We paleontologists,” wrote Eldredge, “have said that the history of life supports that interpretation [of gradual adaptive change], all the while really knowing that it does not.”punctuated_snails8

Eldredge and Gould decided to take a different approach. Instead of blaming the fossil record, they accepted the fossil data at face value. They agreed that the fossil record really does show many groups of organisms appearing abruptly, continuing for millions of years and then going extinct. “Stasis is data,” they insisted. Eldredge and Gould advocated a new evolutionary theory, called “punctuated equilibrium”.”

“Punctuated equilibria” means that evolution takes place in a series of sudden and repeated changes. According to punctuated equilibria, our solar system is the scene of regular changes, where long periods of equilibrium (relative uniformity) are interrupted by brief periods of excitation (punctuation). This throws a very different light on evolution.

“Punctuated Equilibrium was immediately attractive to many paleontologists because it described the fossil record more accurately than neo-Darwinism had done. However, many critics of the theory pointed out that punctuated equilibrium has never explained how the major changes recorded in the fossil record could have taken place in such a short time.”

The last sentence is important – although punctuated equilibria (or equilibrium) matched the fossil record, it proved problematic because:

  • paleontologists could not provide an explanation for the punctuations; and
  • how could life evolve so dramatically and so quickly after the punctuations?
Mk's bk pg 116-117 - The end is nigh

The end is nigh – iridium marks evolutionary jumps.

I want to look at two of the most interesting and dramatic punctuations in our fossil record:

Fossils from the Cambrian Explosion

Fossils from the Cambrian Explosion

The first is the Cambrian Explosion which, as the name suggests, is when complex life forms burst onto the scene. Before the ‘explosion’ the Earth was covered in single-cell organisms – bacteria. Then something happened and life changed into multi-cellular structures – many with eyes, limbs, dorsal nerve chords and hard bodies – in fact, all of the 26 body types that now exist on Earth started during the Cambrian Explosion.

The second punctuation is when dinosaurs became mammals.

Both of these punctuations were dramatic and rapid. Both of these punctuations share something in common: a thin layer of rock between the ‘before’ and ‘after’ fossils. And that thin layer of rock which contains an abundance of a particular chemical that is very rare on the surface of Earth – iridium. Quoting Wikipedia:

Iridium

Iridium

“Iridium is the second-densest element (after osmium) and is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C…  It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.”

Iridium is not only found in abundance deep within the belly of the Earth, but also in meteors. So why is this important in the study of evolution?

The red arrow indicates the thin iridium rich layer which separates the fossils of dinosaurs from the mammals

The red arrow indicates the thin iridium-rich layer which separates the fossils of dinosaurs from the mammals, known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary. Credit: Armstrong 2011 – Glendive, Montana.

The importance of the iridium-rich layers (known as iridium anomalies) in explaining evolution was first noted by a research team at UC Berkeley campus in the 1970s, headed by physicist Luis Alvarez. There is a wonderful article published in 1979, by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), entitled “Berkeley Scientists Report First Evidence That Dinosaur Extinction Caused By Meteorite Impact” which describes how Alvarez and his team arrived at the theory that a giant meteor hit the Earth and caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. Their theory (published in 1980) is now the standard explanation for the extinction of the dinosaurs – but few people understand on what they based their proposal. Quoting from the article:

“If there was an increase in the deposition rate of iridium-rich material, a source on the earth would be unlikely, since iridium is one of the least abundant elements in the earth’s crust,” comments Asaro. “If, on the other hand, the source is extraterrestrial, it would be naturally enriched in iridium and would be compatible with our measurements. So we believe the extraterrestrial hypothesis is more likely.”

Mass extinction/impact research group (left to right) Helen Michel, Frank Asaro, Walter Alvarez and Luis Alvarez (969)

Mass extinction/impact research group (left to right) Helen Michel, Frank Asaro, Walter Alvarez and Luis Alvarez (1969)

In other words, they claim the high levels of iridium found in the K-T boundary came from a meteor because: “a source on the earth would be unlikely”. A source from Earth is not ruled out by evidence, but rather, they couldn’t think of how the Earth could be the source.

In support of Alvarez’s theory a large crater was found off the east coast of Mexico, known as the Chicxulub crater, and it was deemed to be the crash site. But there are problems with this site – scientists have found that the crater pre-dates the extinction of the dinosaurs – fossils that shouldn’t be there have been found above the crater.

“Research, led by Gerta Keller of Princeton University in New Jersey, and Thierry Adatte of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, uses evidence from Mexico to suggest that the Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary by as much as 300,000 years… “We found that not a single species went extinct as a result of the Chicxulub impact,” says Keller. New Blow Against Dinosaur-killing Asteroid Theory, Geologists Find, Science Daily

Other scientists question the validity of using iridium as evidence of a meteor impact:

“Recent theoretical studies (Vickery and Melosh, 1990) suggest that large impacts may produce relatively weak iridium anomalies, because most of the vaporized impactor is blown off the Earth in the energetic collision.” ~ Future Climates of the World: A Modelling Perspective (1995)

An inherent problem with Alvarez’s asteroid impact theory is that it always remains theoretical – a best guess scenario – like trying to figure out a car crash from long ago when there are no witnesses and the crash site has degenerated over time.

Mk's bk pg 126-127 - Car Crash Cosmos

Car Crash Cosmos

Yet the asteroid impact theory remains ensconced in evolutionary science. As long as the source of iridium from Earth is denied, then we are left with little or no choice other than meteoric impact. It is easy to get caught up in claiming ‘a truth’ when there is no alternative on offer.

Earlier I mentioned the Cambrian Explosion. It links to the punctuation between dinosaur and mammal through iridium. In the abstract of a scientific article entitled: “Explosive bolide impact designates the Cambrian Explosion, terminating the Cambrian event in New York” the author Gerald Friedman describes a conference he chaired in 1980, in which Louis Alverez and his son first announced that an asteroid 10km wide struck the Earth, causing a series of global catastrophes which killed the dinosaurs. Friedman was blown away by Alverez’s claim and checked for iridium in his Cambrian fossils samples in NY, his neck of the global evolutionary woods. Friedman too found iridium. He wrote:

“From these iridium anomalies I concluded that an extraterrestrial source, namely an asteroid, produced the iridium anomalies in the Cambrian of New York.”

If we look past Friedman’s conclusion – his interpretation of the data, and simply look at the data, then we find striking similarities between both evolutionary jumps in our fossil record – something happened which left a marker of iridium, that resulted in life transforming into greater complexity and diversity. Not only animal life but plants and the environment. Whatever it was – it was global, progressive and changed the very body of the Earth. And it was not the only time this happened. The BBC webpage on pre-historic Earth gives a very good illustration of the different stages in Earth’s development – each stage marked by a global extinction/transformation event.

butterflylifecycleuse-300x208We tend to look at these stages as ‘mass extinction events’, but that is only half (or less) of the story – like saying the cocoon marks the mass extinction of caterpillars. It is true in one sense, but it completely negates the other side of the story – that the cocoon is a necessary step in the transformation of caterpillar to butterfly. Perhaps a better way to look at the punctuations are ‘periods of excitation’.

The mechanism the Punctuates our Equilibrium

As explained in an earlier post the Core of a planet forms through process of planetary differentiation. Differentiation is a process of separation that happens over time – heavier materials sink and lighter materials rise. This is how the heavy metal Core forms in the centre of a planet. The video below from the University of Nebraska describes the process.

As shown in the video, differentiation can take time. It is also a continual process which only stops when the materials are properly separated. And this is the key!  The Core of a planet keeps growing and eventually it outgrows its home – eventually the Core becomes too large and heavy for the planet to contain and it is ejected.

Ejection of the Core

Ejection of a planetary Core

The ejection of the Core explains the sudden extinction of life – the punctuations in our fossil record. And it also explains the presence of iridium as a marker in the fossil record. Iridium exists in great quantity in the belly of the Earth – the Core’s birth would bring it to the surface and into the atmosphere to be spread around the Earth.

The image below includes 2 photos that are meant to illustrate a giant meteor hitting the Earth and causing the mass extinction of life. But perhaps a better way to view them is as the ejection or birth of a Core – a ‘period of excitation’ – the catalyst for the evolution of life.

IMG_1404

Meteor impact or Core ejection?

Once a Core is ejected it settles close to the body of a planet as a satellite – a moon. I examine the evidence in great depth in the post: A Core Becomes a Moon.

Mk's bk pg 92-93 - A Core Becomes a Moon

A Core Becomes a Moon

The majority of this post focused on iridium as a marker of the punctuations in our fossil record, but there is actually a more common marker – volcanic ash and lava. As Gerta Keller pointed out in her case against meteoric impact in the extinction of the dinosaurs:

None of the other great mass extinctions are associated with an impact, and no other large craters are known to have caused a significant extinction event.”

Keller suggests that the massive volcanic eruptions at the Deccan Traps in India may be responsible for the extinction, releasing huge amounts of dust and gases that could have blocked out sunlight and brought about a significant greenhouse effect.” ~ New Blow Against Dinosaur-killing Asteroid Theory

Volcanic eruptions are linked time and time again to the extinction events in our fossil record. But it is exactly what would be expected if ejection of the Core was the cause of the extinction events - because the Core is nestled in the heart of the Earth in an ocean of magma (1400 miles thick at last count), so its ejection would bring the magma to the surface. As noted in an article from Columbia University (see below) which looked at the extinction of the pre-dinosaurs - the link between the mechanism of extinction and volcanism “is pretty much ironclad”:

“Scientists examining evidence across the world from New Jersey to North Africa say they have linked the abrupt disappearance of half of earth’s species 200 million years ago to a precisely dated set of gigantic volcanic eruptions… “This may not quench all the questions about the exact mechanism of the extinction itself. However, the coincidence in time with the volcanism is pretty much ironclad,” said coauthor Paul Olsen, a geologist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory who has been investigating the boundary since the 1970s.” ~Mega volcanoes Tied to Pre-Dinosaur Mass Extinction

IMG_1450

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

When a planet makes a transition from one orbit to another, the newly evolved lifeforms are adapted to live in their new environments, closer to the sun. The sun acts as an incubator: as God’s creations draw nearer the sun, more heat and energy are released to them, and they are evolved to a higher form. This fits with the theory proposed by some scientists, based on the fossil record. This theory is known as Punctuated Equilibria: life remains fairly constant over long periods (equilibrium over the span of a given World-Age); then, relatively suddenly, life makes major evolutionary advances (the punctuation at the end of Purification Times).

fossil succession

Mercury the moon

Mercury

Mercury

Our Moon

Our Moon

The video above, from NASA, shows Mercury’s south polar region.  Mercury not only looks like our moon, but also shares more similarities with our moon than any of the planets in our Solar System, including:

  • Mercury has no atmosphere, neither does our moon.
  • Mercury is heavily scarred with craters and lava mares, like our moon.
  • Mercury and the moon are of similar size – less the half the size of the Earth.
  • Mercury is highly rich in iron (in fact the most iron-rich of all the planets by a large margin), as is our moon.

The video below is from the Science Chanel – it explains the closeness of Mercury and our moon.

Mercury is very dense. As Alan Stern says above: “Mercury [is] mostly a core and little else.” Mercury’s density cannot be explained by slow-and-gradual-development models. So the preferred scientific explanation is that billions of years ago, a large object crashed into Mercury, stripping away its lesser-dense material, leaving behind the high-density planet seen today. In other words – leaving behind the Core of the planet. This supports the book’s explanation of the “Sacred Path of Migration” which says that Mercury was once a planetary Core.

Diagram of the interior structure of Mercury. The metallic core comprises most of the planet’s interior. Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

Diagram of the interior structure of Mercury. The metallic core comprises most of the planet’s interior. Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

The moon once harbored a dynamic molten core

The moon once harbored a dynamic molten core

Another similarity between Mercury and our moon is that they both are unexpectedly magnetised! (Find out more about our magnetised moon here.) Quoting from the Astronomy Notes of astronomy professor Nick Strobel from Bakersfield College, California:

Mercury is a bit surprising because it has a weak magnetic field. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets, so its interior should have cooled off long ago. Also, Mercury spins slowly—once every 58.8 days. Mercury’s high density tells us that it has a proportionally large iron-nickel core. 

Mercury’s situation was a major challenge to the magnetic dynamo theory. In true scientific fashion, the theory made a testable prediction: Mercury should have no magnetic field or one even less than Mars’ one because its core should be solid. Observation, the final judge of scientific truth, contradicted the prediction. Should we have thrown out the magnetic dynamo theory then? Astronomers were reluctant to totally disregard the theory because of its success in explaining the situation on the other planets and the lack of any other plausible theory.

I’ve highlighted the last few words of the quote because the professor makes a valuable point – the current scientific explanation for how Mercury could be magnetised does not fit the data, but there is no other scientific explanation. The true nature of Mercury remains unknown.