Purification Time – Is the Earth in Labour?

Mk’s bk pg 74-75 – Is the Earth in Labour? Evidence of Earth’s rotation slowing down.

Is the Earth in Labour? Evidence of Earth’s rotation slowing down.

In the post Purification Time – Earth Changes I give evidence of the following changes:

  • a sharp increase in number and intensity of earthquakes;
  • unexplained energy output from the Core;
  • a slowing down of the Earth’s rotation; and
  • a weakening of the Earth’s magnetic field.

I’m writing about it again because there is more recent evidence of great geological unrest. The video below shows global seismic activity for 30 days between March and April 2014. And note there were nineteen 6.0M+ earthquakes, seven 7.0M+ earthquakes and two 8.0M+ events!! This is an incredible amount of earthquakes! Please have a look at the video below for more detail.

Mk's bk pg 30-31: Weddell Sea - Earth's Yoni

The Weddell Sea – Earth’s Yoni

In the post The Weddell Sea in Antarctica: The Earth’s Yoni, I give evidence of the warming of the deep waters of the Weddell Sea – where the Earth’s Core is predicted to emerge – and explain how these changes are causing global climactic instability.

Since writing that post last year the West Antarctic ice sheet has become even more unstable. On 12 May 2014  a news story broke from NASA – The “Unstable” West Antarctic Ice Sheet:

“The new finding that the eventual loss of a major section of West Antarctica’s ice sheet “appears unstoppable” was not completely unexpected by scientists who study this area. The study, led by glaciologist Eric Rignot at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and the University of California, Irvine, follows decades of research and theory suggesting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is inherently vulnerable to change.”

The video below by NASA explains the recent finding of unstable conditions in Antarctica:

And yet another recent news story caught my eye (see pic below) from the Times 11 May 2014 – Antarctic Ice threatened by undersea volcano!

“Antarctica’s ice sheets may face a far more imminent threat than climate change: scientists have found a new volcano forming a mile under the ice, which is threatening a full eruption. The volcano seems to be part of a much bigger volcanic system that is generating earthquakes and releasing heat into the ice above.

The scientists believe the activity is caused by a volcanic hotspot – a giant blob of superheated rock rising from deep within the Earth. It could mean the area is a rift zone, where the Earth’s tectonic plates are pulling apart…

There are six giant glaciers in West Antarctica, with evidence suggesting they are all flowing much faster than in the past, releasing 77% more water a year than in 1973. The causes are not understood but scientists say climate change is a likely factor.”

The Times 11 May 2014 - Antarctic ice threatened by undersea volcano

The Times 11 May 2014 – Antarctic ice threatened by undersea volcano

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life and the Coming New Heaven (and the clue is in the title):

It’s important to realize the Great Spirit has designed the universe with purpose informing its movements and cycles. We are part of the universe, part of Nature’s evolutionary cycles. According to this universal plan, we are advancing in awareness and body— an evolved brain in an evolved body – finally receiving our perfected forms in the Fifth World [Venus]. Accordingly, it is best for us not to devalue or reject the universe, looking to mystically transcend it. But rather to realize that we are part of creation, and to trust where Nature is carrying us according to the great designer of it all.

P1140189

Mercury the moon

Mercury

Mercury

Our Moon

Our Moon

The video above, from NASA, shows Mercury’s south polar region.  Mercury not only looks like our moon, but also shares more similarities with our moon than any of the planets in our Solar System, including:

  • Mercury has no atmosphere, neither does our moon.
  • Mercury is heavily scarred with craters and lava mares, like our moon.
  • Mercury and the moon are of similar size – less the half the size of the Earth.
  • Mercury is highly rich in iron (in fact the most iron-rich of all the planets by a large margin), as is our moon.

The video below is from the Science Chanel – it explains the closeness of Mercury and our moon.

Mercury is very dense. As Alan Stern says above: “Mercury [is] mostly a core and little else.” Mercury’s density cannot be explained by slow-and-gradual-development models. So the preferred scientific explanation is that billions of years ago, a large object crashed into Mercury, stripping away its lesser-dense material, leaving behind the high-density planet seen today. In other words – leaving behind the Core of the planet. This supports the book’s explanation of the “Sacred Path of Migration” which says that Mercury was once a planetary Core.

Diagram of the interior structure of Mercury. The metallic core comprises most of the planet’s interior. Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

Diagram of the interior structure of Mercury. The metallic core comprises most of the planet’s interior. Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

The moon once harbored a dynamic molten core

The moon once harbored a dynamic molten core

Another similarity between Mercury and our moon is that they both are unexpectedly magnetised! (Find out more about our magnetised moon here.) Quoting from the Astronomy Notes of astronomy professor Nick Strobel from Bakersfield College, California:

Mercury is a bit surprising because it has a weak magnetic field. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets, so its interior should have cooled off long ago. Also, Mercury spins slowly—once every 58.8 days. Mercury’s high density tells us that it has a proportionally large iron-nickel core. 

Mercury’s situation was a major challenge to the magnetic dynamo theory. In true scientific fashion, the theory made a testable prediction: Mercury should have no magnetic field or one even less than Mars’ one because its core should be solid. Observation, the final judge of scientific truth, contradicted the prediction. Should we have thrown out the magnetic dynamo theory then? Astronomers were reluctant to totally disregard the theory because of its success in explaining the situation on the other planets and the lack of any other plausible theory.

I’ve highlighted the last few words of the quote because the professor makes a valuable point – the current scientific explanation for how Mercury could be magnetised does not fit the data, but there is no other scientific explanation. The true nature of Mercury remains unknown.

Life Began in the Icy Orbit of Pluto

P1120122 - Copy

“You could say that the universe is in the business of making life – or that God is an organic chemist.”
~ Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, “Seeds of Life”, Omni Magazine Interview, 1983

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

On July 21, 1986, more than 260 scientists from over 20 nations gathered in California to discuss the origin of life on Earth. Dr. Cyril Ponnamperuma, director of the chemical evolution laboratory of the University of Maryland, expressed the opinion of everyone present when he said, “… The processes which led to life on Earth must have started elsewhere in the universe…”

It is common knowledge that the conditions prevailing in the Earth’s present position (approximately 149 ½ million km. from the sun) are unsuitable for the formation of life. Any search for the origins of humanity has to look for a place with much colder conditions, and with an atmosphere of hydrogen and hydrogen compounds. The most plausible explanation is that terrestrial life is a phenomenon which originated in an outlying orbit of the Solar System, where microorganisms were gathered by the convolutions of the Earth and packed into hard ice – conditions perfect for the preservation of organic material.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which include a number of explanatory videos.

Screenshot of the BBC webpage on Snowball Earth, which includes a number of explanatory videos.

dropstone NamibiaThere is an interesting theory that Earth was once covered in ice, known as “Snowball Earth“. I don’t know who originated the theory – different sources claim different authorship, but certainly the work of geologists Paul Hoffman and Dan Schrag contributed significantly. They found ‘dropstones’ in Namibia, Africa. Dropstones are rocks and boulders believed to be dropped into sediment from icebergs. The fact that so many are found in the hot dry deserts of Namibia led them to propose an ice-age existed which extended as far south as the equator. Since its initial proposal Snowball Earth has gained substantial evidential support. There is a dedicated website by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Geology & Paleontology Division) which explores the theory: Snowballearth.org

Why is it interesting? Because this it the time when the first life forms are thought to have evolved. An informative and fascinating article in Discover Magazine, February 2008, entitled: Did Life Evolve in Ice? brings together the work of chemists, physicists and astro-biologists who all arrived independently at the notion that the “funky properties of frozen water may have made life possible.” Below is a series of excerpts, including the original links:

Discover Magazine February 2008

Discover Magazine February 2008

“For decades, those studying the origin of life have imagined that it emerged in balmy conditions from primordial soups, tropical ponds, even boiling volcanic vents. Miller [Stanley L. Miller, renowned origin of life chemist] and and a few other scientists began to suspect that life began not in warmth but in ice—at temperatures that few living things can now survive. The very laws of chemistry may have favored ice, says Bada [Jeffery Bada, chemist and astrobiologist], now at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. “We’ve been arguing for a long time,” he says, “that cold conditions make much more sense, chemically, than warm conditions.”

*****

… strange things happen when you freeze chemicals in ice. Some reactions slow down, but others actually speed up—especially reactions that involve joining small molecules into larger ones. This seeming paradox is caused by a process called eutectic freezing. As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: Only molecules of water join the growing crystal, while impurities like salt or cyanide are excluded. These impurities become crowded in microscopic pockets of liquid within the ice, and this crowding causes the molecules to collide more often. Chemically speaking, it transforms a tepid seventh-grade school dance into a raging molecular mosh pit.

“Usually as you cool things, the reaction rates go down,” concluded Leslie Orgel, who studied the origins of life at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, from the 1960s until his death last October. “But with eutectic freezing, the concentrations go up so fast that they more than make up” for the difference.

“The strong point of freezing,” according to Orgel, “is that you concentrate things very efficiently without evaporation.” Freezing also helps preserve fragile molecules like nucleobases, extending their lifetime from days to centuries and giving them time to accumulate and perhaps organize into something more interesting—like life.

Orgel and his coworkers proposed these ideas in 1966, when he showed that frozen cyanide efficiently assembles into larger molecules. Alan Schwartz, a biochemist at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands, took the idea further when he showed in 1982 that frozen cyanide, in the presence of ammonia, can form a nucleobase called adenine.

*****

Hauke Trinks and wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland

Hauke Trinks and local wildlife on the beach of Nordaustland, far north of the Arctic Circle, where he went to study the evolution of life in sea ice – similar conditions to prehistoric ‘Snowball Earth’. Credit: Marie Tieche

[Pre-historic] Earth may have cooled to an average surface temperature of –40°F and a crust of ice as much as 1,000 feet thick may have covered the oceans. Many scientists have puzzled over how life could have arisen on a planet that was essentially a giant snowball. The answer, Trinks [Hauke Trinks, physicist at Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in Germany] suspected, involved sea ice.

Trinks had become interested in sea ice 10 years before, while studying its tendency to accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and concentrate them in liquid pockets within the ice. He set out to explore whether a layer of ice covering early Earth’s oceans might have gathered and assembled organic molecules.”…

By the time Trinks returned to Hamburg in 2003, he had formulated a theory that ice was doing much more than just concentrating chemicals. The ice surface is a checkerboard of positive and negative charges; he imagined those charges grabbing individual nucleobases and stacking them like Pringles in a can, helping them coalesce into a chain of RNA. “The surface layer between ice and liquid is very complicated,” he says. “There is strong bonding between the surface of the ice and the liquid. Those bondings are important for producing long organic chains like RNA.”

At a lecture in Hamburg in 2003, Trinks met up with chemist Christof Biebricher, who was studying how the first RNA chains could have formed in the absence of the enzymes that guide their formation in living cells. Trinks approached Biebricher with his sea ice theory, but to Biebricher, the experiments to test it sounded messy—more like a margarita recipe than a serious scientific investigation. “Chemists,” says Biebricher, “do not like heterogeneous substances like ice.” But Trinks convinced him to try it in his laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

dna-and-rnaBiebricher sealed small amounts of RNA nucleobases—adenine, cytosine, guanine—with artificial seawater into thumb-size plastic tubes and froze them. After a year, he thawed the tubes and analyzed them for chains of RNA.

For decades researchers had tried to coax RNA chains to form under all sorts of conditions without using enzymes; the longest chain formed, which Orgel accomplished in 1982, consisted of about 40 nucleobases. So when Biebricher analyzed his own samples, he was amazed to see RNA molecules up to 400 bases long. In newer, unpublished experiments he says he has observed RNA molecules 700 bases long.

*****

That is a good start, but it leaves unanswered the question: How do you get from tiny snippets of RNA to longer, well-crafted chains that could have acted as the first enzymes, doing fancy things like copying themselves. The shortest RNA enzyme chains known today are about 50 bases long; most have more than 100. To work effectively, moreover, an RNA enzyme must fold correctly, which requires exactly the right sequence of bases.

A young scientist named Alexander Vlassov stumbled upon a possible answer. He was working at SomaGenics, a biotech company in Santa Cruz, California, to develop RNA enzymes that latch on to the hepatitis C virus. His RNA enzymes were behaving strangely: They normally consisted of a single segment of RNA, but every time he cooled them below freezing to purify them, the chain of RNA spontaneously joined its ends into a circle, like a snake biting its tail. As Vlassov worked to fix the technical glitch, he noticed that another RNA enzyme, called hairpin, also acted strangely. At room temperature, hairpin acts like scissors, snipping other RNA molecules into pieces. But when Vlassov froze it, it ran in reverse: It glued other RNA chains together end to end.

Vlassov and his coworkers, Sergei Kazakov and Brian Johnston, realized that the ice was driving both enzymes to work in reverse. Normally when an enzyme cuts an RNA chain in two, a water molecule is consumed in the process, and when two RNA chains are joined, a water molecule is expelled. By removing most of the liquid water, the ice creates conditions that allow the RNA enzyme to work in just one direction, joining RNA chains. The SomaGenics scientists wondered whether an icy spot on early Earth could have driven a primitive enzyme to do the same. 

*****

Miller died on May 20, 2007, but the provocative theory he helped nurture lives on. In the latest twist, Miller’s ideas are influencing not just theories about life’s origin on Earth but also investigations about the potential for life elsewhere in the solar system. 

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

In January 2013, a drill cut half a mile through the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Subglacial Lake Whillans.

In an article in the July 2013 issue of Discover Magazine (once again written by Douglas Fox): “Life Under Antarctic’s Ice”, a group of scientists discovered a subglacial lake half a mile under Antarctica, which contained something no one thought was possible – life!

“On Jan. 28, Trista Vick-Majors, one of Priscu’s Ph.D. students, took a long-awaited step: She added DNA-sensitive dye to a sample of lake water — the first attempt to detect life in Lake Whillans. As she viewed it through a microscope, she saw specks of green shining against a background of black — cells glowing in response to the dye — as many as 1.6 million cells in each cubic inch of water. Those cells were the first ever found unambiguously in a subglacial lake.”

They thought life was impossible in the subglacial lake, not just because of the cold, but the lack of sunlight.

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet

The location of subglacial Lake Whillans West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Credit: Discover magazine

“Only the upper 10 to 30 feet of water in these lakes was frozen as ice, so sunlight filtered through, allowing life to power itself through photosynthesis. But a lake as deeply buried as Vostok [another subglacial lake] would be entirely dark, so any life there would have to use some other energy source. At that time, the question of what life might inhabit Lake Vostok was becoming increasingly relevant to people who were looking for life elsewhere in the solar system.”

pluto_core

Pluto with its Core

This is a common notion – that life requires the Sun. I recently took a university short course in eco-systems and I was surprised at how the literature gave solar energy as the only source for life. Yet this completely overlooks life found in the deep oceans near volcanic vents and the numerous translucent and blind life forms found in deep caves – who have never seen sunlight. Heat and energy coming from the Earth’s Core have been shown to provide the necessary energy for life (see video below). In the orbit of Pluto, where sunlight is limited, the planet’s Core provides the heat and energy for life to develop.

In this post I have provided evidence that:
  • Earth was once covered in ice,
  • life is believed to have evolved in ice, and
  • present day icy conditions on Earth show an abundance of simple life forms, in particular single-cell organisms – even when there is no sunlight.

But the book doesn’t only state that life began on an icy cold Earth – but that Earth was once in the orbit of Pluto, that’s why it was so cold. Perhaps it is best to look at the Pluto itself to see if it can offer us any information:

The video above from Space Telescope Science Institute was published in 2010. I include it here because astronomers have unexpectedly discovered that Pluto is not “ just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world”. Quoting from the video:

“Pluto got redder, markedly redder, just over that very short time span [1994-2002].” ~ Marc Buie, astronomer Southwest Research Institute. “I was expecting that if we would see any change at all it would be very, very subtle and instead it seems like Pluto is changing perhaps a little faster than I would have expected.” ~ Will Grundy, astronomer, Lowell Observatory. What Pluto’s changing landscape means is anybody’s guess.

“We can no longer interpret what we are seeing as the result of a static surface that’s just changing in the direction we’re looking at it. We really have to have change taking place on the surface to explain the observations.” ~Buie “Observations that hint the Pluto is not just an over sized snowball, but a dramatically dynamic world on the solar system’s final frontier.”

New Horizons - an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

New Horizons – an unmanned Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe

The more we learn about Pluto the more we discard old ideas – the difficulty is figuring out new explanations to replace our old ones. In 2015 an unmanned space probe, New Horizons, will pass by and photograph Pluto and hopefully provide new information. Quoting from a BBC article entitled: “Pluto’s dynamic surface revealed by Hubble images“:

“Alan Stern, who is principal investigator on the mission, said that with every great planetary reconnaissance mission “we have always learnt that when we get there, we are blown away by how primitive our ideas were from blurry images taken from Earth.

He told BBC News: “When we get there, the odds are very high that we will have so much more information and rich detail that all our views circa 1990 and 2000 and 2010 will appear antiquated. That’s why I don’t like to make predictions.”

He added: “No one predicted river valleys on Mars, or volcanoes on the Galilean satellites, or that Mercury was mostly a core and little else. It’s entirely likely that Pluto will be something so surprising that everything we’ve done so far looks quaint in comparison.”

I hope the evidence I presented here gives you cause to think that there is more to our Solar System than we currently believe. Quoting the last paragraph from “Did Life Evolve In Ice?“:

“If life arose in ice on Earth, then why not on Mars, Europa, or Enceladus? “You’ve got to keep an open mind in this business,” Bada says. “If I were going to make a bet about what we’d find if we discover life elsewhere in the universe, I would suspect it would be more cold-adapted than hot-adapted.” “

In the next post I’ll examine the notion that evolution is compelled by the Earth migrating from the orbit of Pluto – orbit by orbit – across the Solar System to where it is today.

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released - February 2010. Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

This is the most detailed view to date of the entire surface of the dwarf planet Pluto, as constructed from multiple NASA Hubble Space Telescope photographs taken from 2002 to 2003. The center disk (180 degrees) has a mysterious bright spot that is unusually rich in carbon monoxide frost. Image released – February 2010.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Bule (Southwest Research Institute)

God’s Evolutionary Process: Punctuated Equilibria

God's Evolutionary Process: The Sacred Path of Migration and  Punctuated Equilibria

Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

Present day ideas about evolution arise from those of Charles Darwin, who envisioned many, small transitional changes in organisms, with off spring varying slightly from their parents. As a small change proved advantageous, it was implemented. As later changes brought further improvements for survival and reproduction, they were carried into future generations. However, all efforts to trace the origin of man are dependent upon a fossil record which is unable to provide an unbroken series of transitional forms. Rather than supporting an unbroken pattern of development, fossil evidence strengthens the case for punctuated equilibria.

Our fossil record doesn’t match our explanation for evolution. The quote below from the textbook: “Explore Evolution” explains how “punctuated equilibria” (or equilibrium) came about:

“Many paleontologists are well aware of the conflict between the fossil record and neo-Darwinian theory [Darwin's theory is now known as ne0-Darwinism since the inclusion of genetics]. In the traditional view, the fossil record was always to blame for the missing pieces of the evolutionary puzzle. Darwin, himself, had said the fossil record was ” woefully incomplete”.

By the early 1970s, some scientists including paleontologists Niles Eldredge and the late Stephen Jay Gould, began to become dissatisfied with this explanation. “We paleontologists,” wrote Eldredge, “have said that the history of life supports that interpretation [of gradual adaptive change], all the while really knowing that it does not.”punctuated_snails8

Eldredge and Gould decided to take a different approach. Instead of blaming the fossil record, they accepted the fossil data at face value. They agreed that the fossil record really does show many groups of organisms appearing abruptly, continuing for millions of years and then going extinct. “Stasis is data,” they insisted. Eldredge and Gould advocated a new evolutionary theory, called “punctuated equilibrium”.”

“Punctuated equilibria” means that evolution takes place in a series of sudden and repeated changes. According to punctuated equilibria, our solar system is the scene of regular changes, where long periods of equilibrium (relative uniformity) are interrupted by brief periods of excitation (punctuation). This throws a very different light on evolution.

“Punctuated Equilibrium was immediately attractive to many paleontologists because it described the fossil record more accurately than neo-Darwinism had done. However, many critics of the theory pointed out that punctuated equilibrium has never explained how the major changes recorded in the fossil record could have taken place in such a short time.”

The last sentence is important – although punctuated equilibria (or equilibrium) matched the fossil record, it proved problematic because:

  • paleontologists could not provide an explanation for the punctuations; and
  • how could life evolve so dramatically and so quickly after the punctuations?
Mk's bk pg 116-117 - The end is nigh

The end is nigh – iridium marks evolutionary jumps.

I want to look at two of the most interesting and dramatic punctuations in our fossil record:

Fossils from the Cambrian Explosion

Fossils from the Cambrian Explosion

The first is the Cambrian Explosion which, as the name suggests, is when complex life forms burst onto the scene. Before the ‘explosion’ the Earth was covered in single-cell organisms – bacteria. Then something happened and life changed into multi-cellular structures – many with eyes, limbs, dorsal nerve chords and hard bodies – in fact, all of the 26 body types that now exist on Earth started during the Cambrian Explosion.

The second punctuation is when dinosaurs became mammals.

Both of these punctuations were dramatic and rapid. Both of these punctuations share something in common: a thin layer of rock between the ‘before’ and ‘after’ fossils. And that thin layer of rock which contains an abundance of a particular chemical that is very rare on the surface of Earth – iridium. Quoting Wikipedia:

Iridium

Iridium

“Iridium is the second-densest element (after osmium) and is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C…  It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.”

Iridium is not only found in abundance deep within the belly of the Earth, but also in meteors. So why is this important in the study of evolution?

The red arrow indicates the thin iridium rich layer which separates the fossils of dinosaurs from the mammals

The red arrow indicates the thin iridium-rich layer which separates the fossils of dinosaurs from the mammals, known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary. Credit: Armstrong 2011 – Glendive, Montana.

The importance of the iridium-rich layers (known as iridium anomalies) in explaining evolution was first noted by a research team at UC Berkeley campus in the 1970s, headed by physicist Luis Alvarez. There is a wonderful article published in 1979, by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), entitled “Berkeley Scientists Report First Evidence That Dinosaur Extinction Caused By Meteorite Impact” which describes how Alvarez and his team arrived at the theory that a giant meteor hit the Earth and caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. Their theory (published in 1980) is now the standard explanation for the extinction of the dinosaurs – but few people understand on what they based their proposal. Quoting from the article:

“If there was an increase in the deposition rate of iridium-rich material, a source on the earth would be unlikely, since iridium is one of the least abundant elements in the earth’s crust,” comments Asaro. “If, on the other hand, the source is extraterrestrial, it would be naturally enriched in iridium and would be compatible with our measurements. So we believe the extraterrestrial hypothesis is more likely.”

Mass extinction/impact research group (left to right) Helen Michel, Frank Asaro, Walter Alvarez and Luis Alvarez (969)

Mass extinction/impact research group (left to right) Helen Michel, Frank Asaro, Walter Alvarez and Luis Alvarez (1969)

In other words, they claim the high levels of iridium found in the K-T boundary came from a meteor because: “a source on the earth would be unlikely”. A source from Earth is not ruled out by evidence, but rather, they couldn’t think of how the Earth could be the source.

In support of Alvarez’s theory a large crater was found off the east coast of Mexico, known as the Chicxulub crater, and it was deemed to be the crash site. But there are problems with this site – scientists have found that the crater pre-dates the extinction of the dinosaurs – fossils that shouldn’t be there have been found above the crater.

“Research, led by Gerta Keller of Princeton University in New Jersey, and Thierry Adatte of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, uses evidence from Mexico to suggest that the Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary by as much as 300,000 years… “We found that not a single species went extinct as a result of the Chicxulub impact,” says Keller. New Blow Against Dinosaur-killing Asteroid Theory, Geologists Find, Science Daily

Other scientists question the validity of using iridium as evidence of a meteor impact:

“Recent theoretical studies (Vickery and Melosh, 1990) suggest that large impacts may produce relatively weak iridium anomalies, because most of the vaporized impactor is blown off the Earth in the energetic collision.” ~ Future Climates of the World: A Modelling Perspective (1995)

An inherent problem with Alvarez’s asteroid impact theory is that it always remains theoretical – a best guess scenario – like trying to figure out a car crash from long ago when there are no witnesses and the crash site has degenerated over time.

Mk's bk pg 126-127 - Car Crash Cosmos

Car Crash Cosmos

Yet the asteroid impact theory remains ensconced in evolutionary science. As long as the source of iridium from Earth is denied, then we are left with little or no choice other than meteoric impact. It is easy to get caught up in claiming ‘a truth’ when there is no alternative on offer.

Earlier I mentioned the Cambrian Explosion. It links to the punctuation between dinosaur and mammal through iridium. In the abstract of a scientific article entitled: “Explosive bolide impact designates the Cambrian Explosion, terminating the Cambrian event in New York” the author Gerald Friedman describes a conference he chaired in 1980, in which Louis Alverez and his son first announced that an asteroid 10km wide struck the Earth, causing a series of global catastrophes which killed the dinosaurs. Friedman was blown away by Alverez’s claim and checked for iridium in his Cambrian fossils samples in NY, his neck of the global evolutionary woods. Friedman too found iridium. He wrote:

“From these iridium anomalies I concluded that an extraterrestrial source, namely an asteroid, produced the iridium anomalies in the Cambrian of New York.”

If we look past Friedman’s conclusion – his interpretation of the data, and simply look at the data, then we find striking similarities between both evolutionary jumps in our fossil record – something happened which left a marker of iridium, that resulted in life transforming into greater complexity and diversity. Not only animal life but plants and the environment. Whatever it was – it was global, progressive and changed the very body of the Earth. And it was not the only time this happened. The BBC webpage on pre-historic Earth gives a very good illustration of the different stages in Earth’s development – each stage marked by a global extinction/transformation event.

butterflylifecycleuse-300x208We tend to look at these stages as ‘mass extinction events’, but that is only half (or less) of the story – like saying the cocoon marks the mass extinction of caterpillars. It is true in one sense, but it completely negates the other side of the story – that the cocoon is a necessary step in the transformation of caterpillar to butterfly. Perhaps a better way to look at the punctuations are ‘periods of excitation’.

The mechanism the Punctuates our Equilibrium

As explained in an earlier post the Core of a planet forms through process of planetary differentiation. Differentiation is a process of separation that happens over time – heavier materials sink and lighter materials rise. This is how the heavy metal Core forms in the centre of a planet. The video below from the University of Nebraska describes the process.

As shown in the video, differentiation can take time. It is also a continual process which only stops when the materials are properly separated. And this is the key!  The Core of a planet keeps growing and eventually it outgrows its home – eventually the Core becomes too large and heavy for the planet to contain and it is ejected.

Ejection of the Core

Ejection of a planetary Core

The ejection of the Core explains the sudden extinction of life – the punctuations in our fossil record. And it also explains the presence of iridium as a marker in the fossil record. Iridium exists in great quantity in the belly of the Earth – the Core’s birth would bring it to the surface and into the atmosphere to be spread around the Earth.

The image below includes 2 photos that are meant to illustrate a giant meteor hitting the Earth and causing the mass extinction of life. But perhaps a better way to view them is as the ejection or birth of a Core – a ‘period of excitation’ – the catalyst for the evolution of life.

IMG_1404

Meteor impact or Core ejection?

Once a Core is ejected it settles close to the body of a planet as a satellite – a moon. I examine the evidence in great depth in the post: A Core Becomes a Moon.

Mk's bk pg 92-93 - A Core Becomes a Moon

A Core Becomes a Moon

The majority of this post focused on iridium as a marker of the punctuations in our fossil record, but there is actually a more common marker – volcanic ash and lava. As Gerta Keller pointed out in her case against meteoric impact in the extinction of the dinosaurs:

None of the other great mass extinctions are associated with an impact, and no other large craters are known to have caused a significant extinction event.”

Keller suggests that the massive volcanic eruptions at the Deccan Traps in India may be responsible for the extinction, releasing huge amounts of dust and gases that could have blocked out sunlight and brought about a significant greenhouse effect.” ~ New Blow Against Dinosaur-killing Asteroid Theory

Volcanic eruptions are linked time and time again to the extinction events in our fossil record. But it is exactly what would be expected if ejection of the Core was the cause of the extinction events – because the Core is nestled in the heart of the Earth in an ocean of magma (1400 miles thick at last count), so its ejection would bring the magma to the surface. As noted in an article from Columbia University (see below) which looked at the extinction of the pre-dinosaurs – the link between the mechanism of extinction and volcanism “is pretty much ironclad”:

“Scientists examining evidence across the world from New Jersey to North Africa say they have linked the abrupt disappearance of half of earth’s species 200 million years ago to a precisely dated set of gigantic volcanic eruptions… “This may not quench all the questions about the exact mechanism of the extinction itself. However, the coincidence in time with the volcanism is pretty much ironclad,” said coauthor Paul Olsen, a geologist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory who has been investigating the boundary since the 1970s.” ~Mega volcanoes Tied to Pre-Dinosaur Mass Extinction

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Quoting from Earth Mother Our Womb of Life:

When a planet makes a transition from one orbit to another, the newly evolved lifeforms are adapted to live in their new environments, closer to the sun. The sun acts as an incubator: as God’s creations draw nearer the sun, more heat and energy are released to them, and they are evolved to a higher form. This fits with the theory proposed by some scientists, based on the fossil record. This theory is known as Punctuated Equilibria: life remains fairly constant over long periods (equilibrium over the span of a given World-Age); then, relatively suddenly, life makes major evolutionary advances (the punctuation at the end of Purification Times).

fossil succession

ALMA Images of the Cosmos

This image shows an aerial view of the Chajnantor Plateau, located at an altitude of 5000 meters in the Chilean Andes, where the array of ALMA antennas is located. The large antennas have a diameter of 12 metres, while 12 smaller antennas with a diameter of 7 metres make up the ALMA Compact Array (ACA). On the horizon, the main peaks from right to left are Cerro Chajnantor, Cerro Toco, and Juriques. This photo was taken in December 2012, four months prior to the ALMA inauguration.

This image shows an aerial view of the Chajnantor Plateau, located at an altitude of 5000 meters in the Chilean Andes, where the array of ALMA antennas is located. The large antennas have a diameter of 12 metres, while 12 smaller antennas with a diameter of 7 metres make up the ALMA Compact Array (ACA). On the horizon, the main peaks from right to left are Cerro Chajnantor, Cerro Toco, and Juriques. This photo was taken in December 2012, four months prior to the ALMA inauguration.

In the past few months the most beautiful detailed images of the cosmos have been published from the new telescopes in Chile – the ALMA array (see above). The images are not only beautiful, they’re also causing astronomers to re-evaluate their ideas of the cosmos.

This image shows the remnant of Supernova 1987A seen in light of very different wavelengths. ALMA data (in red) shows newly formed dust in the centre of the remnant. Hubble (in green) and Chandra (in blue) data show the expanding shock wave.

This image shows Supernova 1987A seen in light of very different wavelengths from different telescopes. ALMA data (in red) shows newly formed material in the centre. (Hubble data is green and Chandra data is blue.)

The image above is of Supernova 1987A (our closest supernova). The data produced by ALMA is surprising astronomers because the ‘exploding’ star is not behaving as expected – quoting from Science Recorder:

‘Astronomers forecasted that, as the gas cooled following the explosion, huge amounts of dust would form as atoms of oxygen, carbon, and silicon bonded together in the cold middle regions of the exploded body.  Yet, earlier observations of SN 1987A made with infrared telescopes during the first 500 days following the explosion detected only a minute amount of hot dust.

“SN 1987A is a special place since it hasn’t mixed with the surrounding environment, so what we see there was made there,” said Indebetouw.  ”The new ALMA results, which are the first of their kind, reveal a supernova remnant chock full of material that simply did not exist a few decades ago.” ‘

Perhaps the lack of heat in a supernova is because the explosion of a star is not an “uncontrolled explosion of a human device“, but rather a “burst of life” as Earth Mother Our Womb of Life describes.

Observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have revealed an unexpected spiral structure in the material around the old star R Sculptoris in the constellation Sculptor. This feature has never been seen before.

Observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have revealed an unexpected spiral structure in the material around the old star R Sculptoris in the constellation Sculptor. This feature has never been seen before.

As our technology improves, our observations of the cosmos improve as well. We are seeing structure and order where none were unexpected. For example, the star R Sculptoris (see pic above) is showing a spiraling internal structure that no one had seen before – nor expected to see. Quoting from a wonderful article about star formation on the ALMA website titled:”ALMA Discovers Large “Hot” Cocoon around a Small Baby Star“:

“A large hot molecular cloud around a very young star was discovered by ALMA. This hot cloud is about ten times larger than those found around typical solar-mass baby stars, which indicates that the star formation process has more diversity than ever thought.”

See more fabulous images from the ALMA website here.

mk bk pg 16,17 and insert

“God’s invisible hands gather the material in the nebula into planets.”